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Chester Bowles

Chester Bowles


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Chester Bowles, sammen med William Benton, etablerede Benton and Bowles Advertising Agency i 1929. Selvom den store depression havde ramt i midten af ​​1930'erne, var deres forretning et selskab på flere millioner dollars, og han tjente mere end $ 250.000 om året i 1941 som formand for bestyrelsen. Selvom han blev nægtet på grund af et øreproblem, tog han et job i staten Connecticut i Wartime Rationing Administration.Med sin erfaring inden for økonomi og administration blev han statsdirektør for Office of Price Administration og blev senere udnævnt til general manager for Federal Price Administration i 1943 af præsident Franklin D. Roosevelt. Kort efter at han blev udnævnt til statssekretær i 1961 af præsident John F. Kennedy, blev han erstattet af George Ball for hans formodede lækage af modstand mod invasionen af ​​svinebugten, hvad der svarede til en bureaukratisk omrokering, der blev kendt som Thanksgiving Day Massacre. Han døde i 1986 i en alder af 85 år efter at have fået et slagtilfælde i Essex, Connecticut, og bliver begravet på River View Cemetery.


Bowles historie, familiekryds og våbenskjold

Navnet Bowles nåede engelske kyster for første gang med forfædrene til Bowles -familien, da de migrerede efter normannernes erobring i 1066. Bowles -familien boede i Lincolnshire. Navnet er imidlertid en reference til familiens tidligere bopæl i Bouelles, nær Neufchatel, i Normandiet.

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Tidlig oprindelse af familien Bowles

Efternavnet Bowles blev først fundet i Lincolnshire, hvor de bosatte sig efter den normanniske erobring. De var oprindeligt fra Bouelles, nær Neufchatel i Normandiet, hvor det var angivet under stavemåden Bowles eller Buelles. [1]

Våbenskjold og efternavn historiepakke

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Tidlig historie om Bowles -familien

Denne webside viser kun et lille uddrag af vores Bowles -forskning. Yderligere 100 ord (7 tekstlinjer), der dækker årene 1613, 1662, 1619, 1663, 1661, 1663, 1669, 1714, 1690, 1702, 1722 og 1637 er inkluderet under emnet Early Bowles History i alle vores PDF Extended History -produkter og trykte produkter, hvor det er muligt.

Unisex sweatshirt med hætte

Bowles stavevarianter

Anglo-normanniske navne har en tendens til at være præget af et enormt antal stavevariationer. Dette skyldes i høj grad, at gammelt og mellemengelsk manglede nogen stavningsregler, da normandisk fransk blev introduceret i det 11. århundrede. De engelske domstoles sprog på det tidspunkt var fransk og latin. Disse forskellige sprog blandede sig ganske frit i det udviklende sociale miljø. Det sidste element i denne blanding er, at middelalderens skriftlærde stavede ord efter deres lyde frem for nogen bestemte regler, så et navn blev ofte stavet på lige så mange forskellige måder som antallet af dokumenter, det stod i. Navnet blev stavet Bowles, Bolles, Boles, Bowls, Boals og andre.

Tidlige bemærkninger fra Bowles -familien (før 1700)

Fremragende blandt familien på dette tidspunkt var Edward Bowles (1613-1662), en engelsk presbyteriansk minister fra Sutton, Bedfordshire Sir John Bolles, 1. baronet i Scampton, Lincolnshire Sir Robert Bolles, 2. baronet (1619-1663), en engelsk politiker, der sad i Underhuset fra 1661 til 1663 Sir.
Yderligere 47 ord (3 tekstlinjer) er inkluderet under emnet Early Bowles Notables i alle vores PDF Extended History -produkter og trykte produkter, hvor det er muligt.

Migration af familien Bowles til Irland

Nogle af Bowles -familien flyttede til Irland, men dette emne er ikke dækket i dette uddrag.
Yderligere 32 ord (2 tekstlinjer) om deres liv i Irland er inkluderet i alle vores PDF Extended History -produkter og trykte produkter, hvor det er muligt.

Bowles migration +

Nogle af de første bosættere af dette efternavn var:

Bowles Settlers i USA i det 17. århundrede
  • John Bowles, der bosatte sig i New England i 1630
  • Thomas Bowles, der bosatte sig i Virginia i 1630
  • Geo Bowles, der landede i Virginia i 1636 [2]
  • Edward Bowles, der ankom til Maryland i 1650 [2]
  • Elizabeth Bowles, der ankom til Maryland i 1650 [2]
  • . (Flere er tilgængelige i alle vores PDF Extended History -produkter og trykte produkter, hvor det er muligt.)
Bowles Settlers i USA i det 18. århundrede
  • Anne Bowles, der ankom til Virginia i 1704 [2]
  • Pallister Bowles, der landede i Virginia i 1713 [2]
  • Isabella Bowles, der landede i Virginia i 1714 [2]
  • James Bowles, der ankom til Maryland i 1729 [2]
Bowles Settlers i USA i det 19. århundrede
  • Fru H Bowles, der ankom til New York, NY i 1810 [2]
  • W A Bowles, der landede i San Francisco, Californien i 1851 [2]

Bowles migration til Canada +

Nogle af de første nybyggere af dette efternavn var:

Bowles Settlers i Canada i det 18. århundrede
Bowles Settlers i Canada i det 19. århundrede
  • John Bowles, 2 år gammel, der emigrerede gennem Grosse Isle Quarantine Station, Quebec ombord på skibet & quotLotus & quot afgår 15. april 1847 fra Liverpool, England skibet ankom den 24. juni 1847, men han døde om bord [3]

Bowles migration til Australien +

Emigration til Australien fulgte de første flåder af dømte, håndværkere og tidlige bosættere. Tidlige immigranter omfatter:

Bowles Settlers i Australien i det 19. århundrede
  • Thomas Bowles, engelsk fange, der blev dømt i Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England i 7 år, transporteret ombord på & quotCaledonia & quot den 19. juni 1822, ankom til Tasmanien (Van Diemens land) [4]
  • John Bowles, engelsk fange, der blev dømt i Yarmouth, Norfolk, England for livet, transporteret ombord på & quotBlenheim & quot den 11. marts 1837, ankom til Tasmanien (Van Diemens land) [5]
  • Thomas Bowles, britisk fange, der blev dømt i Great Yarmouth, Norfolk, England i 7 år, transporterede ombord på & quotAsiatic & quot den 26. maj 1843, ankom til Tasmanien (Van Diemens land) [6]
  • Charlotte Bowles, der ankom til Adelaide, Australien ombord på skibet & quotRajah & quot i 1849 [7]
  • Charlotte Bowles, der ankom til Syd Australien i 1849 ombord på skibet & quotRajah & quot [7]
  • . (Flere er tilgængelige i alle vores PDF Extended History -produkter og trykte produkter, når det er muligt.)

Bowles migration til New Zealand +

Emigrationen til New Zealand fulgte i de europæiske opdagelsesrejsendes fodspor, såsom kaptajn Cook (1769-70): først kom sælere, hvalfangere, missionærer og handlende. I 1838 var det britiske New Zealand Company begyndt at købe jord fra maoristammerne og sælge det til nybyggere, og efter Waitangi -traktaten i 1840 tog mange britiske familier ud på den hårde seks måneders rejse fra Storbritannien til Aotearoa for at starte et nyt liv. Tidlige immigranter omfatter:


25. maj: Chester Bowles: Guvernør i Civil Rights-Era i Connecticut

Chester Bliss Bowles var en af ​​Connecticuts mest gennemførte og ambitiøse politikere i det 20. århundrede. Født i Massachusetts i 1901, han gik på privatskole i Connecticut og tog eksamen fra Yale i 1924. Efter college arbejdede han som tekstforfatter på et reklamebureau i New York City, før han grundlagde sit eget annoncefirma, der efter mange års succes, gav ham mulighed for komfortabelt at trække sig tilbage fra virksomheden som 40 -årig og rette opmærksomheden mod politik.

Chester Bowles med præsident John F. Kennedy, 1961.

Bowles viet over tre årtier af sit liv til public service. Efter at have været afvist fra militærtjeneste på grund af en øre skade, tjente han i stedet under Anden Verdenskrig som rationeringsadministrator i Connecticut og arbejdede sig hurtigt op ad rækkerne til statsdirektør for prisadministration. I 1943 valgte præsident Franklin Delano Roosevelt Bowles til at lede Federal Office of Price Administration — den første af flere højtstående lederudnævnelser, som Bowles ville afholde under de på hinanden følgende formandskaber i Roosevelt, Truman, Kennedy og Johnson.

I 1948 vendte Bowles tilbage til Connecticut for at kæmpe for guvernør og forlod en usandsynlig sejr i dengang stærkt moderate republikanske stat. Som guvernør arbejdede Bowles på at implementere en ambitiøs økonomisk og social dagsorden ved hjælp af FDR ’s New Deal -programmer som model med blandet succes. Ved udøvende fiat etablerede han Connecticut ’s første borgerrettighedskommission, officielt desegregerede Connecticut National Guard og var den første guvernør i statens historie, der udpegede en kvinde og en afroamerikaner til hans personlige militærstab. Bowles ’ lovforslag i New Deal-stil vedrørende boliger, velfærd og uddannelsesreform blev imidlertid afvist af en solid republikansk statslovgiver, og Bowles mistede sin genvalgskampagne til en rival, der effektivt malede ham som en ekstrem venstreorienteret. liberal.

Bowles tjente som USA's ambassadør i Indien i 1951.

Efter at have mistet sit genvalgstilbud vendte de utrættelige Bowles i 1951 igen til Washington for at tjene i en række administrative, lovgivende og diplomatiske poster i løbet af de næste to årtier. Bowles fungerede i kort tid som præsident John F. Kennedy ’s under udenrigsminister, som en engangs kongresrepræsentant fra Connecticut ’s 2. distrikt og som USA's ambassadør i Indien (to gange).

Den 25. maj 1986 døde Chester Bowles i sit Essex -hjem efter en lang kamp med Parkinson's sygdom. I dag er flere regeringsbygninger, parker og veje i hele Connecticut — inklusive størstedelen af ​​Route 9, en af ​​statens vigtigste gennemgange — navngivet til hans ære.


Chester B. Bowles

Chester Bowles (klasse 1924) blev født i Springfield, Massachusetts og deltog i Choate, inden han tog til Yale. I 1924, som senior, var han kaptajn for det golfhold, der vandt interkollegialt mesterskab, selvom han ikke var en af ​​de fire spillere, hvis scores tællede med i sejren. I åbningskampen i den sæson var han blevet parret med sin holdkammerat, Dexter Cummings, den individuelle interkollegiale mester fra 1923, og de tabte til et hold fra Westchester Biltmore Country Club i Rye, New York. I 1923 havde Bowles tabt sin kamp i Apawamis Invitational. Han spillede ikke i den interkollegiale holdkonkurrence i slutningen af ​​sæsonen, men han konkurrerede i det individuelle mesterskab og tabte i anden runde. Hvorfor blev han valgt til holdkaptajn? Det kan godt være, at de kvaliteter, der gjorde Bowles succesfulde inden for reklame, politik og diplomati, var tydelige allerede dengang for hans vælgere.

Bowles skrev senere, at "som senior på college, i 1924, besluttede jeg mig for at tilbringe mit liv i regeringen" og bemærkede, at han var en af ​​få i klassen, for hvem en offentlig karriere havde nogen interesse. Først tog han til New York og fik et job som $ 25 om ugen tekstforfatter i et reklamebureau. Under den store depression i 1929 startede han sit eget reklamefirma med en anden Yale -kandidat, William Benton. Det var meget vellykket, men Bowles var ikke tilfreds med pengebelønninger alene. Begivenhederne den 7. december 1941 gav ham den mulighed, han havde søgt.

På grund af et øreproblem blev Bowles afvist, da han forsøgte at melde sig til flåden. Han accepterede en stilling som direktør for Office of Price Administration i Connecticut. I 1943 udnævnte præsident Roosevelt ham til daglig leder for Federal Price Administration. Han var direktør for økonomisk stabilitet, da han uden held stillede op til guvernør i Connecticut i 1946. Han blev guvernør i 1948. Han blev udnævnt til USA's ambassadør i Indien i 1951 og igen i 1961. Mellem disse poster tjente han i Repræsentanternes Hus fra Connecticuts andet distrikt. Bowles skrev syv bøger med sin filosofi om indenrigs- og udenrigspolitik.


Chester Bowles papirer

Chester Bowles Papers, der består af 186 fod korrespondance, taler, skrifter, fotografier, mundtlige historieinterviews og forskellige andre former for materiale, registrerer Bowles lange karriere i public service. Selvom papirerne indeholder nogle fotografier og memorabilia fra Bowles barndom, collegeår og fra hans tilknytning til reklamefirmaet Benton og Bowles, er der ingen korrespondance eller anden vigtig dokumentation før 1942, da Bowles overtog stillingen som Connecticut State Dækrationeringsadministrator. Efter denne dato belyser aviserne Bowles forskellige roller som stats- og føderal administrator, politiker, diplomat, publicist og som forfatter og konsulent. Papirerne kaster meget lys over en lang række emner, herunder amerikansk politik, økonomisk politik, udenrigspolitik, amerikansk udenrigshjælp og udviklingspolitik, Indien, amerikanske forbindelser med Indien, Connecticut -politik og aktiviteter fra amerikanske organisationer og enkeltpersoner inden for liberal politik, borgerrettigheder og andre årsager. Der er korrespondance med seks amerikanske præsidenter, kongresmedlemmer, embedsmænd fra føderale og statslige regeringer, premierministre og andre embedsmænd fra udenlandske regeringer, pressefolk og ledere af liberale amerikanske grupper samt med vælgere og beundrere i offentligheden.

Papirerne er opdelt i otte kronologiske dele, der hver indeholder flere serier. Der er også en ubehandlet del:

Del II. 1946 juli - 1951 oktober

Del III. 1951 oktober - 1953 marts

Del IV. 1953 april - 1958 december

Del V. 1959 januar - 1960 december

Del VI. 1961 januar - 1963 juni

Del VII. 1963 juli - 1969 maj

Datoerne for hver del er noget vilkårlige, men defineres mere eller mindre af den specifikke position Bowles havde dengang. For eksempel slutter del I med Bowles 'fratrædelse som direktør for Office of Economic Stabilization, og del IV begynder, når Bowles vendte tilbage fra sin første turné som ambassadør i Indien. Dele er tydeligt afgrænset i den følgende kronologi (s.4). Hver del indeholder korrespondance, taler, skrifter og avisudklip og kan også indeholde memoranda og emnefiler. For hver af disse otte dele er der et separat register, der indeholder en mere detaljeret beskrivelse og en mappeliste. Da korrespondance med et bestemt individ kan forekomme i en eller alle af de otte dele, er der blevet udarbejdet et kumulativt navneindeks for at lette placeringen af ​​denne persons korrespondance.

Visse materialetyper overlapper de kronologiske opdelinger eller kræver særlig håndtering. Af disse årsager er der blevet oprettet en del IX. Denne del, der indeholder fotografier og memorabilia personlige og økonomiske papirer informationsfiler og lyd- og videobånd, vil vise sig værdifuld, selv for forskeren, der kun er interesseret i en bestemt tidsperiode. Den særlige samling af mundtlige historieinterviews er i dette afsnit, ligesom Bowles 'personlige dagbøger. For en mere detaljeret beskrivelse og mappeliste, se registret for del IX.

Chester Bowles Papers i Yale University Library indeholder ikke alle papirer, der nogensinde har passeret Bowles 'hænder. Forskere vil utvivlsomt finde Nationalarkiverne en nyttig kilde til dokumentation af Bowles roller i OPA -filer, der stadig er i Udenrigsministeriet, vil, når de er tilgængelige, vise sig uvurderlig for hans år med Kennedy -administrationen samt for hans to perioder som ambassadør i Indien . Tilsvarende har Connecticut State Library i Hartford vigtige supplementer til Yales beholdning på Bowles 'periode som guvernør i Connecticut. Det har også nogle optegnelser vedrørende Connecticut Office of Price Administration.

For relaterede papirer i manuskripter og arkiver, se følgende samlinger: Dorothy Stebbins Bowles Papers Philip Hall Coombs Papers James G. Rogers, Jr. Papers Commission on State Government Organization, 1949-1950, i Connecticut Miscellaneous Manuscripts Collection

Chester Bowles Papers blev ejendom for manuskripter og arkiver, Yale University Library, i februar 1973 gennem Bowles 'gaveinstrument. Indtil da havde papirerne været i Bowles 'besiddelse i familiehuset i Essex, Connecticut. Organiseringen af ​​papirerne blev afsluttet i december 1974, på hvilket tidspunkt de blev åbne for forskning. Kun et begrænset antal emner er foreløbig begrænset, og disse næsten udelukkende som følsomt personligt materiale. Jean Joyce, en mangeårig medarbejder i Mr. Bowles, fungerede som konsulent i gennemgangen af ​​samlingen. Joyce forberedte også de mundtlige historieinterviews med Bowles 'kolleger, som indgår i hans papirer. Eventuelle yderligere tiltrædelser af papirer vil blive integreret i den eksisterende organisation.

DEL I - 1942 januar - 1946 15. juli

Chester Bowles begyndte sin karriere inden for public service som Connecticut State Tire Rationing Administrator (januar 1942 - marts 1942), Connecticut State Rationing Administrator og direktør for Connecticut State Office of Price Administration (marts 1942 - juli 1943). Efter at have tjent som daglig leder ved Office of Price Administration (OPA) i Washington i flere måneder, blev han national OPA -administrator i oktober 1943. I begyndelsen af ​​1946 blev han udnævnt til direktør for Office of Economic Stabilization (OES), februar 1946 - juli 1, 1946. Han trådte tilbage, efter at kongressen i juni 1946 ikke formåede at vedtage den stærke lovgivning, han mente var nødvendig for at opretholde effektiv priskontrol.

Den vellykkede afvikling af Anden Verdenskrig på hjemmefronten hængte i væsentlig grad sammen med kontrollen med krigsinduceret inflation og rimelig rationering af knappe varer. Fastsættelsen af ​​pris- og rationeringspolitikker tjente som fokus for kontroverser og forhandlinger mellem de flere krigsagenturer, de ældre bureaukratier, de politiske repræsentanter i kongressen og erhvervs-, gård- og arbejdsgrupper.

Chester Bowles Papers, del I, selvom kun et fragment af korrespondancen, der gik gennem Bowles 'hænder, afslører meget af historien om organisationen af ​​den nationale OPA og lokale pris- og rationeringskort om forsøgene på at sikre offentlig forståelse, accept og overholdelse af kontrollen med de bureaukratiske og politiske konflikter i Washington og det tilbagevendende spørgsmål om sikring af kongresstøtte.

Papirerne er arrangeret i fire serier: Korrespondancetaler, erklæringer og skrifter OPA -rapporter og udskrivning af kalendere til trykt materiale, udklip, scrapbøger.

DEL II - 15. juli - 1951 20. oktober

I løbet af denne periode deltog Bowles i en række forskellige offentlige aktiviteter. Selvom han ikke sikrede sit partis nominering i 1946, vandt han i 1948 guvernørsposten i et løb mod republikaneren James C. Shannon. Han tabte, snævert, sit bud på 1950 om genvalg mod John D. Lodge. Hans korte embedsperiode som guvernør indeholdt flere kampe for at gennemføre sådanne liberale reformer som omorganisering af Connecticuts kaotiske statsregering, reform af statsbudgettet, igangsættelse af et statsomfattende boligprogram og udvidet statsstøtte til lokalsamfund til opbygning af nye skoler.

Gennem disse år fordybede Bowles sig i demokratisk politik på statsligt og nationalt plan. Hans mest bemærkelsesværdige udflugt til national politik kom i 1948, da han tilføjede sin stemme til den såkaldte & quotdump-Truman & quot-bevægelse af utilfredse demokrater. På samme tid øgede Bowles hyppige tjeneste for FN-som UNESCO-delegeret, som konsulent for generalsekretær Trygve Lie og som international formand for FNs børneanken-hans interesse for udenrigsanliggender.

I hele perioden 1946-1951 var Bowles en produktiv forfatter og talte ofte bortset fra sine aktiviteter som guvernør. Han deltog i organisationen og politikken for liberale grupper og var en tidlig tilhænger af amerikanerne for demokratisk handling. I september 1951 blev han udnævnt af præsident Truman til ambassadør i Indien og Nepal og nåede Indien i oktober 1951, hvor del III begynder.

Papirerne er organiseret i seks serier: Generel korrespondance Korrespondance om politiske ansættelser og jobansøgningsskrifter, taler og nyhedsmeddelelser Specialemner (i to underserier: 1948 og 1950 guvernørkampagner og guvernørinformationsfiler) Biografiske profiler, lister og udnævnelser og tidsplaner Udklip.

Se desuden del IX for fotografier eller memorabilia, bånd (lyd og video), diske, film osv. Fra denne periode. Se også i Manuskripter og arkiver i Connecticut-samlingen Kommissionen om statens regeringsorganisation, 1949-1950. Connecticut statsbibliotek i Hartford indeholder nogle af Bowles 'papirer i løbet af hans periode som guvernør, materialet består hovedsageligt af filer fra statslige organer, bestyrelser og kommissioner. Et appendiks i slutningen af ​​del II viser disse filer. Der er også optegnelser over nogle statslige agenturer fra denne periode i Connecticut State Library.

DEL III - 1951 20. oktober - 1953 22. marts

I september 1951 blev Bowles nomineret til ambassadør i Indien og Nepal af præsident Truman. Hans udnævnelse blev bekræftet på trods af stærk opposition ledet af senator Robert Taft. Dette register dækker hans periode i Indien fra hans ankomst med sin familie i New Delhi den 20. oktober 1951 til hans afrejse i marts 1953. Korrespondance om Bowles udnævnelse og bekræftelse, tillykkebreve og en vis korrespondance om rekruttering af personale til Indien kan findes i del II (1946-1951).

Som ambassadør var Bowles involveret ikke kun i de traditionelle diplomatiske funktioner, men med de mange nye og voksende aktiviteter i den amerikanske mission i New Delhi. Under hans administration var arbejdet i ambassaden, den tekniske samarbejdsadministration og USA's informationstjeneste tæt koordineret.

Del III giver virkelig en rig rekord på det første store amerikanske økonomiske bistandsprogram for underudviklede nationer. I Bowles 'første par uger som ambassadør blev Indien den første underudviklede nation, der modtog et betydeligt tilskud eller lån under det nye & quotPoint Four & quot -program. En teknisk samarbejdsadministration (TCA) skulle hurtigt oprettes og bemandes. Et topprioriteret job, der skulle udføres, var at planlægge den mest effektive brug af amerikanske bistandsmidler i samarbejde med indiske embedsmænd, der derefter forberedte Indiens eget første femårige udviklingsprogram.

Bowles dybe bekymring med, økonomisk udvikling for Indien som grundlag for dens fremtidige økonomiske og politiske stabilitet og hans tætte samarbejde med høje indiske embedsmænd ved udvælgelsen af ​​betydelige udviklingsprogrammer, der skal finansieres af amerikansk bistand, er veldokumenteret her. Hans korrespondance med den amerikanske regering og indiske embedsmænd er omfattende om initieringen og potentialet af disse programmer og om behovet for kongres- og offentlig støtte. Del 111 dokumenterer også Bowles 'tro på betydningen af ​​United States Information Service (USIS) og hans bestræbelser på at udvide sine aktiviteter og personale i Indien og Nepal.

Bowles uformelle og personlige tilgang til diplomati fik stor omtale, og han opfordrede alt missionærpersonale, herunder ægtefæller og børn, til at lære indiske sprog og skikke. I sin bemanding af missionsposter søgte han dygtige officerer og gjorde en ihærdig indsats for at rekruttere sorte officerer. Han mente, at tilstedeværelsen af ​​sorte medarbejdere ville bidrage til at modvirke det negative indtryk, asiater havde af Amerikas behandling af dets racemæssige minoriteter.

Bowles befandt sig undertiden i den unormale position at blive presset og angrebet både af konservative i USA og af kommunister i Indien. Som liberalist i McCarthy -æraen blev Bowles kritiseret derhjemme for ikke at tage et stærkere standpunkt mod kommunismen og for hans stærke forkæmpelse af udenlandsk bistand. I Indien blev han derimod ofte angrebet af den kommunistiske presse. En indisk kommunist, R.K. Karanjia, redaktør for Blitz, forsøgte endda at miskreditere ham ved at forfalske et brev i Bowles 'navn.

Bowles holdt tæt kontakt til demokratisk politik derhjemme under de 1955 politiske konventioner og kampagner. Da Brien McMahon, den demokratiske senator fra Connecticut, døde i juli 1952, var der pres på Bowles om at fratræde sin post og søge den demokratiske nominering til McMahons plads eller i det mindste vende hjem og arbejde for partiet i kampagnen, Bowles, dog , mente hans arbejde i Indien var vigtigere.

Med Eisenhowers sejr i 1952 håbede Bowles, at amerikansk udenrigspolitik ikke ville ændre sig drastisk, og at han ville blive bedt om at blive ved under den nye administration. Eisenhower udpegede imidlertid George V. Allen til at erstatte ham, og Bowles forlod Indien i marts 1953. Bowles bog, Ambassador's Report, er en detaljeret redegørelse for hans periode i Indien.

Papirerne i del III giver en ret komplet oversigt over Bowles aktiviteter i denne periode. Meget af materialet vedrører hans embede som ambassadør, f.eks. Hans filer med memorandier og rapporter fra amerikanske missioner og hans korrespondance med indiske og amerikanske politikere om Indien og Asien. Derudover er der meget om hans personlige og politiske interesser i USA for eksempel om national og Connecticut demokratisk politik. Papirerne er arrangeret i fire serier:

I. USA og international korrespondance

2. US Government Correspondence

II. Indisk og Nepal korrespondance

2. USA's mission i Indien og Nepal

III. Skrifter, taler, udsagn og nyhedsmeddelelser

Ud over materialet i denne del, se del IX for fotografier, memorabilia, lydbånd, videobånd og filmfilm fra denne periode.

note om tilrettelæggelsen af ​​korrespondancen i del III

Arrangementet af korrespondancefiler i to serier følger det system, der blev brugt i Bowles 'kontor i New Delhi, en serie til korrespondance uden for Indien og den anden til lokal (Indien og Nepal) korrespondance, uanset om det var med indiske eller amerikanske embedsmænd eller andre korrespondenter. I underserien U.S. Mission er Bowles korrespondance i form af memoranda og rapporter med amerikanske embedsmænd i Indien og Nepal om USIS og TCA samt om ambassadespørgsmål.

Bemærk: Bowles 'kontorfolk havde et kompliceret arkiveringssystem, der omfattede anbringelse af kopier af kopier af udgående breve i mere end én fil i et forsøg på at krydshenvise efter emne. Symbolerne & quotX & quot og & quotCR & quot angiver sådanne kopier. Af og til kan der være andre notationer, understregninger, noter og cirkelnumre, som sandsynligvis blev lavet, da der blev undersøgt Bowles 'bøger og artikler.

DEL IV - 1953 april - 1958 december

Efter at have forladt Indien i slutningen af ​​marts 1953 vendte Bowles tilbage til sit hjem i Essex, Connecticut, uden særlige ansvarsområder. Alligevel var årene mellem 1953 og 1958, som er dækket i del IV, særligt aktive. Bowles satte sig som den umiddelbare opgave at hjælpe den amerikanske offentlighed med at forstå problemerne i Asien, og i månederne efter hans hjemkomst arbejdede han på Ambassador's Report, en personlig beretning om familiens oplevelser i og indtryk af Indien og Asien. Dens succes førte til et krav om, at Bowles skulle holde foredrag i utallige optrædener over hele landet.

Mellem 1955 og 1958 udgav Bowles yderligere fire bøger: The New Dimensions of Peace (1955), Afrikas udfordring til Amerika (1956), Amerikansk politik i en revolutionær verden (1956) og Ideas, People and Peace (1958). Disse bøger og hans rejser til Afrika, Asien og Rusland fik Bowles et ry som ekspert i udenrigsanliggender, som fortaler for udenlandske bistandsprogrammer (som han betragtede som en & quotinvestering i årsagen til fred & quot) og som en stærk kritiker af Eisenhower Administrations udenrigspolitik.

I denne periode blev han mere og mere involveret i stats- og nationalpolitik. I 1954 blev Bowles presset af venner til at stille op til guvernør i Connecticut mod manden, der havde besejret ham i 1950, John Lodge. John Bailey og andre demokratiske ledere i Connecticut var overbeviste om, at Bowles kunne vinde, og Bowles selv var ivrig efter at løbe. På samme tid havde Adlai Stevenson udelukket muligheden for at Bowles sluttede sig til hans administration, måske i udenrigsministeriet, hvis Stevenson løb med succes til præsidentposten i 1956. Bowles besluttede at tage sine chancer med Stevenson - en beslutning, han senere indså, havde været en fejl.

Fra 1954 til valget i 1956 arbejdede Bowles aktivt for at hjælpe Stevenson, og del IV har betydelig dokumentation om denne forening. Bowles var en del af en uformel, liberal hjernetillid til Stevenson, organiseret af Thomas Finletter. Gruppen, der omfattede Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., og Averell Harriman, forsøgte at fodre Stevenson -holdningspapirer om vigtige spørgsmål. Senere forsøgte Bowles at få Douglas MacArthur, der var utilfreds med Eisenhower og hans administration, til vokalt at støtte Stevenson. Under selve kampagnen indsendte Bowles memoranda om kampagnestrategi og udenrigspolitik, skrev udkast til taler for Stevenson og lavede selv kampagne.

Med Stevensons nederlag vendte Bowles igen tankerne mod Connecticut -politik. Da Connecticut allerede havde en populær demokratisk guvernør, Abraham Ribicoff, besluttede Bowles at søge partnominering til senatet i William A. Purtell. Det var et skæbnesvangert løb. William Benton, Bowles 'tidligere forretningspartner, som han havde udpeget til at besætte et ledigt senatsæde i 1949, ønskede også at stille op og følte, at han havde en bedre chance end Bowles for at vinde John Bailey og Ribicoffs støtte. I midten af ​​september dukkede en tredje kandidat op, da Thomas Dodd afgav en formel erklæring om, at han havde til hensigt at søge nomineringen. Bowles betragtede Dodd, en konservativ demokrat og katolik, som den virkelige udfordring, nogle bag Dodd mente, at han måske havde en bedre chance mod den katolske Purtell.

Bowles, på grundlag af en privat Harris -afstemning, der viste Benton kører en dårlig tredjedel, var sikker på, at Benton ikke udgjorde nogen trussel, og han forblev overbevist om, at Bailey og Ribicoff ikke kunne støtte Dodd. Alligevel fandt den demokratiske statskonference i juni nære medarbejdere til Baileys kampagne kraftigt for Dodd og Bowles 'udsendinge ikke kunne overbevise Benton om at trække sig fra løbet.

Dodd vandt nomineringen ved den første afstemning. To bind up party wounds the Democratic leadership asked Bowles to run for the Second District Congressional seat. Though tempted to refuse, Bowles felt that he had been out of public life too long, and that he could use the Congressional seat as a platform to speak out on national issues. He launched an ambitious campaign devoting one week to each of the state senatorial districts. In a series of coffee parties, rallies, and weekly newspaper columns, he discussed the issues important to the district, unemployment, new industry, housing and government spending. The Bowles campaign was effective and Bowles was sent to Congress by a healthy majority. With Bowles' move to Washington, Part IV ends and Part V begins.

The papers of Part IV are divided into five series: Correspondence Speeches, Statements, and Writings Campaigns for Senatorial Nomination and for Congress Schedules, Itineraries, Appointment Books Newspaper Clippings.

PART V -- 1959 January - 1960 December

Bowles spent two years (1959-1960) in Washington not only as a Congressman representing Connecticut's Second District, but as an ever more active and involved supporter of John F. Kennedy for President. These are the years that are covered in Part V.

Congressman Bowles was especially fortunate in drawing a competent staff composed of Thomas L. Hughes, James C. Thomson, Jr., Patricia Durand, and Robert Downer into his Washington office. Bowles hoped for and received assignments to the House Foreign Affairs Committee, where he worked hard on foreign policy issues giving special attention to the Mutual Security Act. Among the issues of more direct concern to his District, Bowles sponsored the Area Redevelopment Act to alleviate conditions of unemployment and underemployment in economically depressed areas, and introduced legislation on housing and social security. He used the Congress as a podium to speak out on racial discrimination, national priorities, and inflation. He joined the Democratic Study Group, an organization of key liberal Democratic Congressmen.

In the summer of 1959 Bowles published a book, The Coming Political Breakthrough , in which he discussed the approaching election and the issues of critical importance to America's future. Bowles' strong opinions in the book, in Congress, and in numerous public appearances throughout the country brought him increasing prominence.

In October, 1959, John F. Kennedy met with Bowles to discuss the Senator's presidential candidacy and his desire to have Bowles serve as his foreign policy advisor. After consulting first with Adlai Stevenson and learning that Stevenson had no intention of seeking the presidential nomination a third time, Bowles accepted Kennedy's offer. His only condition was that he not be asked to campaign directly against Stevenson or Humphrey. Announcement of Bowles' appointment by Kennedy was made in February, 1960, roughly a month after Kennedy had declared his candidacy. Though Bowles' designation was foreign policy advisor, in fact his most important function was to help Kennedy win the support of the liberal wing of the party, which had so far withheld its endorsement of Kennedy.

Late in February, Bowles was asked by Paul Butler, head of the Democratic National Committee, to chair the Democratic platform committee for the coming presidential convention. After a series of preliminary regional hearings to allow citizens a chance to propose their ideas, Bowles was able to put together a specific, forthright platform, which included a strong civil rights plank, and push it through the committee with surprisingly little difficulty. In addition, he convinced the Democratic National Committee to forego the usual word-for-word reading of the platform in favor of a documentary film, geared to the T.V. audience, on the party's accomplishments, coupled with a reading of a shortened form of the platform.

Kennedy's nomination at the convention was a disappointment to several of Bowles' supporters who believed the "grass roots were rooting for Bowles," and had organized Bowles-for-President Clubs, chiefly in the Midwest and on the West Coast. Bowles had discouraged these groups, asserting that Kennedy was the strongest candidate.

With Kennedy nominated, Bowles had to decide about his own seat in the Congress. If Kennedy won, Bowles was virtually assured of an important role in the new administration. After debating the possibilities, including his prospects if Kennedy were defeated, Bowles withdrew from the Connecticut race.

In the months between the convention and the election, Bowles kept up a heavy schedule of campaign speeches for the national ticket. He also met with Secretary of State Christian Herter for the briefings on critical foreign policy situations, traditionally held for presidential candidates, and submitted speech material to the Kennedy campaign staff.

With Kennedy's election, Washington was flooded with rumors of possible Kennedy appointees. Bowles, along with Senator William J. Fulbright and Adlai Stevenson, were frequently mentioned as choices for the post of Secretary of State. Dean Rusk, however, was the eventual appointee. Bowles was selected as his Under Secretary for Political Affairs. With Bowles' move into the State Department at the end of 1960, Part V ends.

Part V is organized in four series: Correspondence Speeches, Statements and Writings Special Subjects Clippings.

PART VI -- 1961 January - 1963 June

Followers were disappointed when Kennedy chose Dean Rusk to be Secretary of State, but Bowles saw great potential for shaping a more forward-looking U.S. foreign policy in the offered post of Under Secretary for Political Affairs. He had no reason to doubt that he could work well with Rusk whom he had known as president of the Rockefeller Foundation while Bowles was a trustee.

Bowles and Rusk moved into the State Department at the end of December, 1960, which is when Part VI begins. Bowles felt the first requirement for an enlightened new foreign policy was to find high-level talent to head up the embassies abroad and State Department bureaus in Washington. Bowles succeeded in enlisting a distinguished group of people to serve in U.S. Missions, particularly in the developing nations of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Bowles was especially proud of securing, among others, Edwin O. Reischauer to serve in Japan and George Kennan to become ambassador to Yugoslavia. Bowles also helped promote an important redefinition of the role of a U.S. ambassador as overseer and coordinator of all U.S. government activities in his country of assignment.

Several crises occurred in the first months of the new administration: the Bay of Pigs, Laos, Soviet resumption of nuclear testing, and civil strife in the Dominican Republic. On the question of the Bay of Pigs, Bowles opposed the invasion and similarly opposed any retaliatory measures after its stunning failure. The press learned of Bowles' opposition, to the sharp annoyance of the Kennedys.

The Bowles-Rusk relationship never successfully worked out, and many detailed letters and memoranda from Bowles to Rusk (see State Department correspondence) bear witness to this deteriorating situation. By July 1961, rumors were circulating in Washington that Bowles would resign or be reassigned. Rusk did in fact offer Bowles an ambassadorial post in Latin America, an offer which Bowles declined. Kennedy, however, affirmed his desire to keep Bowles in the Administration and the rumors were temporarily quieted. Returning to "work as usual" he left for Africa, the Middle East and Asia to conduct regional conferences of U.S. Ambassadors in those areas, the first of a series of such conferences initiated by Bowles.

On the weekend of Thanksgiving, Bowles was suddenly called back from his home in Connecticut to Washington where Rusk informed him that the State Department was being reorganized. George Ball was to replace Bowles as Under Secretary and Bowles was asked to replace Averell Harriman as a roving ambassador. Bowles' new title would be President's Special Representative and Advisor on Asian, African, and Latin American Affairs. The announcement to the press emphasized Bowles' new office in the White House complex and the raise in salary and rank. But Bowles was dubious about the new position and his ability to get the President's attention.

During the next year Bowles traveled widely in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, meeting with the Shah of Iran, Nasser, Haile Selassie, Nehru, Ayub Khan, and Prince Sihanouk, among others. He inspected rural and community development projects and AID-sponsored programs, visited with Peace Corps volunteers, and saw the results of the African independence movement. Often he sent suggestions back to the President in detailed memoranda.

But, in December 1962, Bowles transmitted to Kennedy a letter of resignation. He felt strongly that his position had placed him outside the policy-making structure and he was exasperated with the lack of progress on or even high level attention to a positive policy geared to the developing nations. Kennedy asked Bowles to withhold his resignation until they could meet again. In early January, Kennedy met with Bowles with a new proposal John Kenneth Galbraith was about to leave as ambassador to India and Kennedy hoped Bowles would agree to replace him. Before accepting the offer, Bowles sent Kennedy a memo outlining his thoughts on policies toward India and its relations with the rest of Asia. With Kennedy's concurrence on these policies, he felt able to accept the offer.

With Bowles' departure for India in July of 1963, this part of the Papers ends and Part VII begins.

Part VI consists of three series: Correspondence Speeches, Statements and Writings Clippings.

Note: The researcher should also consult Part IX for additional materials related to this period, including photographs, diaries, and oral histories. The researcher might also be interested in a Yale senior essay (Spring, 1974) on Bowles during this period. See: Stephen Heintz, Frustrations at Foggy Bottom: Chester Bowles as Under Secretary of State, January - November 1961 , in Miscellaneous Mss., No. 170.

PART VII -- 1963 Jul - 1969 May

Bowles' second term as Ambassador to India began in July, 1963. This is the beginning date for Part VII. Bowles thought that he would be in India no more than two years, but his tour lasted until the spring of 1969. On arrival, the Bowles' moved into the recently-built ambassadorial residence, Roosevelt House, but found this highly stylized architecture ill-suited to their more informal mode of life. As during Bowles' first ambassadorship, they moved into the pleasant home-like bungalow at Ratendon Road. They used Roovevelt House as a place for official entertaining and hospitality functions for members of the Mission and the Indian people.

During his tenure in New Delhi, Bowles brought all programs of the U.S. Mission in India under his direction. He oversaw the functioning not only of the Embassy and consulates, but also of the U.S. Information Service, the Peace Corps, the Agency for International Development, and the military and intelligence missions. Bowles again made numerous attempts to get Senators and Congressmen to come to India to see firsthand what had been and what needed to be done in developing nations like India. When he first arrived, a top priority was negotiations between the U.S. and India to develop an agreement for substantial U.S. military assistance to India. Kennedy's death in November 1963, followed by that of Prime Minister Nehru only six months later, plus resistance in U.S. State and Defense Departments, delayed this agreement.

Learning to adjust to India's changing leadership was a special aspect of this period. Jawaharlal Nehru, aging and ill on Bowles' arrival, died in May 1964. Lal Bahadur Shastri, Nehru's successor, had been in office less than two years when he too died in 1966. His death brought yet another new Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi, Nehru's daughter. Similarly the assassination of Kennedy and the subsequent efforts to ascertain the Johnson Administration's views and assure Johnson's positive stance on India were critical issues during Bowles' second ambassadorship.

In addition to continuing problems of economic development, India was confronted in this period with major problems which demanded immediate U.S. attention. In September 1965, Pakistan launched an attack in Kashmir using tanks and other war material supplied by the U.S. In 1965 and 1966 two successive droughts brought severe food shortages. The U.S., with its then abundant food surpluses, was able to help, but President Johnson attempted to use U.S., grain for political leverage. Despite repeated pleas by Bowles and U.S. friends of India, food shipments were delayed until there was a virtual "ship-to-mouth" schedule of deliveries.

Two other events brought diplomatic and Indo-U.S. relations problems to the U.S. Mission. One was the 1967 public exposure in the U.S. of C.I.A. funding of U.S. educational and scholarly activities in India and elsewhere. The second was the sudden appearance of Svetlana Allilueva, Joseph Stalin's daughter, at the U.S. Embassy in New Delhi in March 1967, where she sought U.S. assistance to remain in India or at least to prevent her return to the Soviet Union. Bowles' efforts to aid Svetlana prevent her return to the Soviet Union. Bowles' efforts to aid Svetlana ended with her eventual settlement in the U.S.

The papers for this period are an important source of information on the changing aspects of Indo-U.S. relations on Bowles' guidance of the U.S. Mission in New Delhi and also on the change of administration in the U.S. following the assassination of John Kennedy, the 1964 U.S. presidential election, the ever-widening war in Vietnam, Bowles' mission to Prince Sihanouk in Cambodia in 1968 to discuss North Vietnamese military violations of the Cambodia border, and the 1968 U.S. presidential election. The papers also record the onset of Bowles' affliction with Parkinson's disease and his efforts to control it.

The papers in this Part (VII) are smaller in quantity than one would expect for a six-year period. It is possible that a large quantity of correspondence and other documentation that passed through the Ambassador's hands was left in the Embassy files in New Delhi on Bowles' departure.

Part VII is arranged in four series: Correspondence Speeches, Statements and Writings Special Subjects including U.S. Mission in India, India, Other Countries and Areas and Clippings.

Part VIII is composed of papers dating from Bowles' return from India in the spring of 1969. While most of Bowles' public correspondence for 1969 and 1970 is included here, this part is incomplete and unprocessed and will remain so until Bowles' death when any additional papers can be processed with what is already in Manuscripts and Archives.

Although Bowles had left India and throughout most of 1969 and 1970 was almost totally occupied with preparing his autobiography Promises to Keep , he kept in close touch with India and U.S. foreign policy, particularly in regard to South and Southeast Asia. See especially his correspondence with President Nixon, Henry Kissinger, Secretary of State William Rogers, General William C. Westmoreland, Dean Rusk and Lucius Battle.

The papers in this section contain drafts, and correspondence and critiques of various stages of the manuscripts for the autobiography, Promises to Keep. Also included are drafts, correspondence and the final manuscript of Bowles' book, "Mission to India," published in India in 1974. Copies of both books, as published, have been incorporated with these files.

Part IX is arranged in five series as follows: Photographs and Memorabilia Informational Files Diaries and Oral Histories Personal and Financial Papers and Audio Tapes, Video Tapes, Movies, Phonograph Records.

Boxes 220-223, which contain constituent correspondence, are restricted until 2035 Jan 1.

The transcript of the oral history interview with Douglas Bennet, Jr. in Box 399b is closed until the deed of gift is secured from Bennet.

Box 408, which contains restricted personal and financial papers is closed until 2025 Jan 1.

Box 409, which contains audio tapes of oral history interviews with Bowles's associates, is not open to researchers.

Original audiotapes, videotapes, and motion picture films, as well as preservation and duplicating masters, may not be played. Researchers must consult use copies, or pay for the creation of a use copy, retained by the repository, if none exist.


INTERVIEW

ESSEX ENT THE end of the narrow road that winds through a thick, dark forest, a rambling white house sits on a bluff overlooking Essex Harbor at the mouth of the Connecticut River. In the back of the 15room house, through a long living room where a dozing spaniel takes a momentarily interested peek at a visitor, there is a small study crammed with books on politics, history and economics.

Over the fireplace, which smells faintly of charred wood, are autographed pictures with “warmest regards” messages from the four Presidents who played dominant roles in the life of the man who has used the study as a hideaway during his 29 years of remarkable public service, a career of success and failure that has coincided with some of the finest and darkest hours in the nation's recent history.

The pictures are signed in variously expansive scrawls by Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harry S. Truman, John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson and addressed to Chester Bowles, a principal economic and foreign policy expert in the Administrations of the four Democratic Presidents.

The house, designed for the Bowleses by James Gamble Rogers, the architect of some Yale University buildings, is, as it has been for decades, a gathering place for local and state Democratic candidates. Several times a year, the Bowleses play host to the parties that are usually held around the swimming pool.

“They are marvellous events,” said Mrs. Bowles, “Chet doesn't have to speak, but his presence means a great deal.”

Mrs. Bowles, the former Dorothy Stebbins, who is known as “Steb,” said the family moved into the house in 1939, “a memorable year—the Germans in. vaded Poland and our son, Sam, was born.”

Mr. Bowles first gained attention as administrator of price controls in World War II and then as director of economic stabilization in the post‐war years. He went on to foreign‐policy assignments as Undersecretary of State and Ambassador to India. He represented the United States on diplomatic missions to Asia. In between those duties, he served as a Congressman from Connecticut and as its Governor.

Mr. Bowles is now 76 years old and suffering from Parkinson's Disease. The degenerative nerve disorder was diagnosed in 1969 when he was serving his second term as Ambassador to India, a post he retired from in 1969 to return to his home overlooking the river.

His voice is all but inaudible now and his arms and legs are stiff from the disease. But he still has a fervent desire to talk and to explain the moral and practical reasons for past national policies.

As he talked, Peggy Stanton, a young, barefoot registered nurse wearing denim skirt, knelt beside Mr. Bowles, who was seated in an overstuffed chair. She tried to catch his words in a makeshift, stethescope‐like tube.

During the latter part of his Government service, “Chet” Bowles was prominent advocate of a liberal foreign policy and later a victim of a policy shift when the United States expanded its military role in Vietnam and mounted the Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba.

In 1961, he was moved out of the second spot in the State Department under former Secretary of State Dean Rusk in what John Kenneth Galbraith, the economist and historian, said in retrospect signified the decline of liberal in fluence on foreign policy in the Kennedy Administration.

“If the Department couldn't abide Bowles, we weren't likely to accomplish much,” Mr. Galbraith, also a liberal, wrote in a 1971 review of Mr. Bowles's autobiography, “Promises to Keep.”

In his review, Mr. Galbraith, whose own career coincided with that of Mr. Bowles as head of the Office of Price Administration and Ambassador to India, wrote that “the truth is that Bowles's liberal friends failed him in moments of crisis.” The economist included himself in that criticism.

Mr. Bowles said that he agreed with Mr. Galbraith's assessment.

He said that the definitive account of the United States role in Indochina has not yet been written, but he characterized that policy as one created by intractable men who settled on an anti‐Communist stand as the safest means of preserving their jobs.

“It will be up to the younger historians to write the story of that time and the relationships of the men who made policy,” he said.

And if he had his autobiography to write over, it would contain some harsher comments about Dean Rusk, among others, he said.

When asked if he had ultimately been disappointed by President Kennedy, who chose Mr. Bowles as his chief for eign policy adviser before he selected Dean Rusk as Secretary of State, Mr. Bowles looked away. It was clearly not subject that could be dealt with in a few questions and answers.

Mr. Bowles repeatedly returned to what he regards as one of his major accomplishments, his role as head of the Office of Price Administration, regarded as one of the biggest bureaucratic headaches in Washington during World War II.

When he was summoned by President Roosevelt to head the agency, Mr. Bowles said that he was stunned by the size of the organization, but equally impressed by “the extraordinary sense of unity” among officials and the American people.

After he took over, he said, a Gallup Poll indicated that 85 percent of the people approved of the control measures, and Mr. Bowles gained a reputation as one of the first consumer advocates.

But when the war ended and he moved to the Office of. Economic Stability, he said he was unable to continue price controls for another year.

Faced with opposition from apowerful coalition of business and union leaders, Congress largely overrode his recommendations, he said.

Six years ago, Mr. and Mrs. Bowles gave 99 acres of their 110‐acre grounds to a nature conservancy. The house itself bustles. The five dogs are in and out, the youngest child of an Indian couple who came back from India with the couple is stringing rope from two trees and there are the nurses, a secretary and others.

Mr. Bowles spends much of his day reading, “trying to keep up,” he said. On a small table next to his chair, were copies of several news magazines along with the Hindustan Times and India Abroad as well as local newspapers.

When asked how she spent her days, Mr. Bowles answered laughingly that her response would involve a lengthy job description.

She travels to visit friends, she said, and manages the household that includes frequent visits from five children and 14 grandchildren.


BOWLES, Chester Bliss ("Chet")

(b. 5 April 1901 in Springfield, Massachusetts d. 25 May 1986 in Essex, Connecticut), liberal Democratic politician who served as under-secretary of state, Kennedy's special representative and adviser for Asian, African, and Latin-American affairs, and U.S. ambassador to India during the 1960s.

Bowles was born into a prominent New England family in Springfield, Massachusetts, the third child and second son of Charles Allen Bowles, a paper manufacturer, and Nellie Harris Bowles, a homemaker. He was educated at two Connecticut private schools, Choate and Roxbury, and graduated from Yale University's Sheffield Scientific School with a B.S. in 1924. In 1925 he married a Springfield debutante, Julia Fisk, with whom he had two children, Chester, Jr., and Barbara. From 1925 Bowles worked in New York City in advertising, and in 1929 with William Benton he established the agency of Benton and Bowles, serving as its chief executive from 1936 to 1941. Bowles's first marriage ended in 1932, and in 1934 he remarried, to Dorothy ("Steb") Stebbins, a Smith College graduate in social work who was often credited with awakening his social conscience, and with whom he had three children, Cynthia, Sally, and Sam. During World War II Bowles joined the government, heading the federal Office of Price Administration (1943–1946) he later became a Democratic governor of Connecticut (1949–1951), ambassador to India and Nepal (1951–1953), and a congressional representative (1959–1961).

In 1960 Bowles supported John F. Kennedy's presidential campaign, hoping in return to become secretary of state. Kennedy shared Bowles's interest in gaining third world loyalties but not his New Dealer's preference for economic aid over military coercion, nor the low priority Bowles accorded relations with the Soviet Union and Europe and his lack of interest in nuclear policy. Six feet four, lanky in youth, hulking in middle age, Bowles lacked the sense of humor and social sophistication needed to survive in the highly polished, intellectually rarefied, and sometimes cruelly competitive Kennedy administration circles—the milieu Jacqueline Kennedy, the president's widow, subsequently termed "Camelot." He accepted the lesser position of undersecretary of state but lacked rapport with Secretary Dean Rusk and swiftly became known as a poor administrator—in one colleague's words, "a pleasant idealistic fellow, naive and wordy." Bowles's opposition to the bungled March 1961 Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba and, worse still, widely circulated press reports of his dissent soon alienated the influential attorney general, the president's brother Robert.

A staunchly anticolonial Wilsonian, Bowles urged American support for emerging nations in Africa, even when such states adopted cold war nonalignment. In 1961 he deplored European backing for the secessionist regime of Moise Tshombe in the Katanga province in the former Belgian Congo, and he welcomed its collapse when assailed by United Nations forces. From the early 1950s Bowles urged that the United States move toward improving relations with China, with the ultimate objective of recognizing both China and Taiwan. As undersecretary he unsuccessfully suggested the relaxation of trade and travel controls against China and the extension of food aid, ideas Kennedy and Rusk quickly squelched. Bowles opposed the growing U.S. troop commitment to Laos and Vietnam, arguing that this might provoke Chinese intervention—almost certainly exaggerating, as he had since the 1950s, the potential Chinese military threat. He recommended instead that all Indochina be neutralized under international guarantees, a suggestion probably unworkable given North Vietnamese determination to destabilize the South.

Fired in November 1961, Bowles took the vague, essentially honorific post of special presidential representative to Latin America, Africa, and Asia. He continued to advocate a "Peace Charter for Southeast Asia," effectively his earlier neutralization scheme, and massive economic aid for that region. He resigned in January 1963, but later that year Kennedy, recognizing Bowles's genuine talent for handling third world countries, appointed him ambassador to India, a post he held until 1969.

Bowles hoped to repeat the triumphs of his first ambassadorial assignment, when his efforts eventually facilitated substantial long-run increases in American economic aid to India, but found his second mission more difficult. Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, with whom his relationship had been close, was ill when Bowles arrived, and he died in 1964. Nehru's successor, Lal Bahadur Shastri, served less than two years, a period dominated by the 1965 Indo-Pakistan War, before dying in office. Nehru's daughter and Shastri's successor, Indira Gandhi, was cool toward Bowles, greatly resenting his unsolicited avuncular advice. Bowles strongly admired President Lyndon Johnson's domestic civil rights stance and War on Poverty programs, but unlike Kennedy, who appreciated Bowles's empathy with developing countries, Johnson and many of his officials found his identification with India irritating and often ignored him. Even so, Bowles's rejection of the ambassadorial mansion in favor of a modest bungalow, his obvious distaste for diplomatic socializing, and the warm respect he and his wife, who frequently wore saris, showed ordinary Indians were long remembered in his host country.

Bowles always deplored the 1954 U.S. military alliance with India's neighbor Pakistan, and before Kennedy's assassination in November 1963 submitted to him a scheme whereby the United States would give both nations limited military assistance, provided they observed ceilings on defense spending and sought no additional weaponry from other countries. When India and Pakistan went to war in 1965, both employing American weapons, the United States initially halted all further military aid to both nations and later drastically cut all military programs. More fruitfully, Bowles backed major agricultural reforms that brought about the "Green Revolution," which ultimately made India self-sufficient in food grains. Johnson's policy of deliberately doling out food aid in small installments, which appalled Bowles, may well have been one incentive impelling India to implement such measures.

Bowles had only limited success in winning Indian support for American policies in Vietnam, one major reason for Johnson's disenchantment with Indira Gandhi. Privately Bowles continued to advocate a major economic aid program for Southeast Asia and to support a halt to bombing and the opening of peace negotiations publicly he remained silent as the Johnson administration ignored his dissenting advice. In January 1968 Bowles represented the United States in talks with Prince Norodom Sihanouk of Cambodia, his objectives being to reach an understanding with Cambodia over American pursuit of Viet Cong forces, limit U.S. military incursions into Cambodia, and so preserve the country's neutrality and integrity. Though initially successful, these talks failed to prevent a subsequent full-scale American invasion of Cambodia. Bowles also helped orchestrate the 1967 defection from India to the United States of Svetlana Alliluyeva, daughter of the Russian dictator Josef Stalin.

Retiring in 1969, Bowles published somewhat anodyne memoirs. In 1971, the year they were published, he welcomed the separation of Bangladesh from Pakistan. In 1986 Bowles died of Parkinson's disease, which had been diagnosed in 1965, and was buried in Essex, Connecticut. His considerable abilities notwithstanding, Bowles's liberal, noninterventionist, and non-Europeanist outlook, decidedly at odds with the prevailing post-1945 foreign policy consensus, and his fondness for lofty, idealistic, and rhetorical generalities precluded his wielding greater influence within the administrations he served.

Bowles left his personal papers to Yale University Library. Many of his official papers are among the records of the Department of State in the National Archives II, College Park, Maryland the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library, Boston, Massachusetts and the Lyndon B. Johnson Library, Boston, Massachusetts. Some documents from his official career have been published in the series Foreign Relations of the United States. In retirement Bowles published his rather unrevealing memoirs, Promises to Keep: My Years in Public Life 1941–1969 (1971). Although written by a diplomatic protégé and associate, his only biography, Howard B. Schaffer's Chester Bowles: New Dealer in the Cold War (1993), is a balanced and fair assessment of his public career. Brief accounts of Bowles's service under Kennedy and Johnson are given in Nelson Lichtenstein, ed., Political Profiles: The Kennedy Years (1976), and Political Profiles: The Johnson Years (1976). Obituaries are in the New York Times og Washington Post (both 26 May 1986). Bowles recorded oral histories for Columbia University, the Kennedy Presidential Library, the Johnson Presidential Library, and the Jawaharlal Nehru Memorial Library, New Delhi, India.


Bowles Collection - Highlights


BOX 381, FOLDER 65: Ephemera, including absentee voting information Parliament of India Diplomatic Gallery Card and DNC and USIS cards.


BOX 375, FOLDER 38: Photographs of a Sikh wedding.


BOX 375, FOLDER 43: Photographs of Kalimpong.


BOX 375, FOLDER 43: Photograph of diya vendor, before Divali.


Chester Bowles

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When Harry Truman named him ambassador to India in 1951, Chester Bowles was already a prominent figure in American public life a onetime advertising mogul, wartime administrator, governor of Connecticut and yet his past hardly presaged the turn his path would take in Asia. Over the next two decades, at home and abroad, Bowles would become one of the leading liberal lights in American foreign policy, a New Dealer destined to be at odds with the stiffening cold war conservatism of his time. His biography is also the story of America finding its place in a changing world, a story of remarkable relevance to our own post-cold war era.

Howard Schaffer, a former ambassador and seasoned Foreign Service officer, worked closely with Bowles in India and Washington and is able to offer a colorful firsthand portrayal of the man, as well as an insider&rsquos view of American foreign policy in the making. Bowles&rsquos indefatigable energy, inspired idealism, and humanitarian instincts leave their mark on these pages&mdashas do his stubbornness, his cultural blinders, and his failure to master the game of bureaucratic politics. We see him in his sometimes exhilarating and ultimately frustrating struggle to influence the leaders and policymakers of his day&mdashas twice ambassador to India, Democratic party foreign policy spokesman, congressman from Connecticut, foreign policy adviser to John F. Kennedy, undersecretary to Dean Rusk at the State Department, and President Kennedy&rsquos special adviser on Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Drawing on a wealth of documents and interviews with some of the nation&rsquos top foreign policy makers in the post&ndashWorld War II years, Schaffer shows us Bowles in his tireless attempt to advance an alternative approach to international relations during those decades, an approach defined less in military than in economic terms, focused less on the struggle for power with the Soviet Union in Europe than on the contest with China over the fate of Third World countries.

&ldquoOnly the historians can determine who was right and who was wrong,&rdquo Dean Rusk once said of Bowles&rsquos ideas and convictions&mdashand today history itself is writing the last word.

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Chester B. Bowles

Chester Bowles (Class of 1924) was born in Springfield, Massachusetts and attended Choate before going to Yale. In 1924, as a senior, he was captain of the golf team that won the intercollegiate championship, although he was not one of the four players whose scores counted toward the win. In the opening match of that season, he had been paired with his teammate, Dexter Cummings, the 1923 individual intercollegiate champion, and they lost to a team from the Westchester Biltmore Country Club in Rye, New York. In 1923 Bowles had lost his match in the Apawamis Invitational. He did not play in the intercollegiate team competition at the end of the season, but he did compete in the individual championship, losing in the second round. Why was he elected team captain? It may well be that the qualities that made Bowles successful in advertising, politics, and diplomacy were evident even then to his constituents.

Bowles wrote later that “as a college senior, in 1924, I determined to spend my life in government,” observing that he was one of a few in class for whom a public career held any interest. First he went to New York and got a job as a $25 per week copywriter in an advertising agency. During the Great Depression of 1929 he started his own advertising firm with another Yale graduate, William Benton. It was highly successful, but Bowles was not satisfied by monetary rewards alone. The events of December 7, 1941 provided him the opportunity he had been seeking.

Because of an ear problem Bowles was rejected when he tried to enlist in the Navy. He accepted a position as director of the Office of Price Administration in Connecticut. In 1943, President Roosevelt appointed him general manager of the Federal Price Administration. He was the Director of Economic Stability, when he ran unsuccessfully for governor of Connecticut in 1946. He became governor in 1948. He was named US Ambassador to India in 1951 and again in 1961. Between those posts he served in the House of Representatives from Connecticut’s second district. Bowles wrote seven books setting forth his philosophy of domestic and foreign policy.



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