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6200-årigt parasitæg kan være det første bevis på tidlig menneskelig teknologi, der spreder sygdom

6200-årigt parasitæg kan være det første bevis på tidlig menneskelig teknologi, der spreder sygdom


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Nyeste forskning viser, at schistosomiasis, en sygdom forårsaget af fladormsparasitter, kan have været spredt ved tidligste kunstvanding i det gamle Mesopotamien, hvilket tyder på, at tidlig teknologi forværrede sygdomsbyrden.

Opdagelsen af ​​et schistosomiasis-parasitæg i en 6200-årig grav ved en forhistorisk by ved Eufratfloden i Syrien kan være det første bevis på, at landbrugsvandingssystemer i Mellemøsten bidrog til sygdomsbyrde, ifølge ny forskning offentliggjort i Lancet Smitsomme sygdomme.

Schistosomiasis er en sygdom forårsaget af flere arter af fladormsparasitter, der lever i blærens og tarmens blodkar.

Infektion kan resultere i anæmi, nyresvigt og blærekræft. Denne forskning viser, at den kan have været spredt ved indførelse af afgrødevanding i det gamle Mesopotamien, regionen langs flodsystemet Tigris-Eufrat, der dækker dele af nutidens Irak, Iran, Kuwait, Syrien og Tyrkiet.

Ifølge medforfatter Dr Piers Mitchell fra Division of Biological Anthropology ved University of Cambridge kan opdagelsen være blandt de ældste tegn på, at menneskeskabt teknologi utilsigtet forårsager sygdomsudbrud.

”Den person, der fik parasitten, kunne have gjort det ved brug af kunstvandingssystemer, der begyndte at blive indført i Mesopotamien for omkring 7500 år siden. Parasitten tilbringer en del af sin livscyklus i snegle, der lever i varmt ferskvand, før de lader sneglen grave sig gennem huden på mennesker, der vader eller svømmer i vandet, ”sagde Mitchell.

"Disse kunstvandingssystemer distribuerede vand til afgrøder og kan have udløst begyndelsen på den enorme sygdomsbyrde, som schistosomiasis har forårsaget i løbet af de sidste 6000 år."

Udgravning af en kalkolitisk begravelse ved zeydan. Kredit: Gil Stein, Oriental Institute, University of Chicago

Opdagelsen ved Tell Zeidan i Syrien blev foretaget af et internationalt team af arkæologer og biologiske antropologer fra Cambridge, Cyperninstituttet og University of Chicagos Oriental Institute. Det viser, at parasitten inficerede mennesker der mindst tusind år tidligere end der er fundet i Egypten. Det ældste schistosomiasis -æg, der tidligere blev fundet, var i egyptiske mumier fra 5200 år siden.

Ægget blev fundet i bækkenområdet ved begravelsen, hvor tarmene og blæren ville have været i løbet af livet. Kontroljordprøver fra hovedets og fodområderne i graven indeholdt ingen parasitære æg, hvilket tyder på, at gravstedet ikke for nylig var forurenet med parasitten.

Et skistosomæg genvandt fra bækkenbunden fra et menneske fra 6500-6000 år gammelt. Kredit: Piers Mitchell

"Schistosomiasis er blevet gradvist mere almindelig med tiden, så det medfører en enorm byrde over hele verden i dag med over 200 millioner mennesker inficeret. Det forårsager anæmi, som reducerer den fysiske produktivitet betydeligt hos inficerede mennesker og kan også forårsage blærekræft, ”sagde Mitchell.

"Vi ville forvente, at disse konsekvenser hos gamle mennesker ville have haft en betydelig indvirkning på de tidlige civilisationer i regionen."

Udvalgt billede: Chalcolithic begravelse i Zeidan. Kredit: Gil Stein, Oriental Institute, University of Chicago

Kilde: 6200-årigt parasitæg kan være det første bevis på tidlig menneskelig teknologi, der spreder sygdom. University of Cambridge.


Sandheden er hvor?

Forskere har fundet de tidligste kendte tegn på infektion med en parasitorm, der nu rammer mere end 200 millioner mennesker verden over, i et skelet, der er mere end 6.000 år gammelt.

Arkæologer opdagede et parasitæg nær bækkenet på et børneskelet i det nordlige Syrien og siger, at det stammer fra en tid, hvor gamle samfund først brugte kunstvandingssystemer til at dyrke afgrøder. Forskere formoder, at den nye landbrugsteknik betød, at folk brugte meget tid på at vade i varmt vand – ideelle forhold for parasitterne til at hoppe ind i mennesker. Det kan have udløst udbrud af den vandbårne fladormssygdom kendt som schistosomiasis.

"Opfindelsen af ​​kunstvanding var et stort teknologisk gennembrud (men) det havde utilsigtede konsekvenser," sagde Gil Stein, professor i nærøstlig arkæologi ved University of Chicago, en af ​​rapportens forfattere. "En mere pålidelig fødevareforsyning kostede mere sygdom," skrev han i en e -mail.

Folk kan fange fladormsparasitten, når de er i varmt ferskvand, de små orme bæres af snegle og kan grave sig ind i menneskets hud. Efter at have vokset til voksne orme lever de i årevis i blæren, nyrerne, tarmene og andre steder i kroppen. Parasitterne kan forårsage symptomer, herunder feber, udslæt, mavesmerter, opkastning og lammelse af benene. I disse dage kan sygdommen let behandles med lægemidler til at dræbe ormene.

Stein sagde, at der var tegn på hvede- og bygbrug i byen, hvor skeletterne blev fundet, og at kunstvanding også kunne have ansporet udbrud af andre sygdomme som malaria ved at oprette puljer af stillestående vand til myg til at yngle.

Piers Mitchell, en anden undersøgelsesforfatter, sagde, at ældgamle landbrugssamfund uforvarende kunne have lanceret den globale overførsel af fladormsparasitterne, der hvert år ramte millioner af mennesker. Han sagde, at moderne kunstvandingssystemer stadig spreder sygdomme i udviklingslandene.

"I mange dele af Afrika beslutter nogen klog at sætte en dæmning eller en kunstig vandkilde i og derefter 10 år senere får alle schistosomiasis," sagde Mitchell.

Forskningen blev offentliggjort online torsdag i tidsskriftet Lancet Infectious Diseases.

Andre eksperter var enige om, at det var sandsynligt, at kunstvanding spredte parasitære sygdomme, der begyndte i oldtiden.

"Egypten langs Nilen var et hotspot i generationer, fordi folk var proppet ind i flodsletten, og der sandsynligvis var mange mennesker, der havde lavt niveau (fladorm) infektioner i hele deres liv," sagde Quentin Bickle, en parasitekspert ved London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. "Folk ville have vidst, at der var noget underligt, der foregik, men de ville ikke have vidst, hvad de skulle gøre ved det."


Gamle parasitter antyder, at menneskelig teknologi har bidraget til spredning af sygdomme

Opdagelsen af ​​et schistosomiasis parasitæg i en 6.200 år gammel grav ved en forhistorisk by ved Eufratfloden i Syrien kan være det første bevis på, at landbrugsvandingssystemer i Mellemøsten bidrog til sygdomsbyrde.

Forskningen fra University of Chicagos Oriental Institute, University of Cambridge og Cyprus Institute fremgår af den nye udgave af Lancet infektionssygdomme.

Schistosomiasis er en sygdom forårsaget af flere arter af fladormsparasitter, der lever i blærens og tarmens blodkar. Infektion kan resultere i anæmi, nyresvigt og blærekræft. Denne forskning viser, at den kan have været spredt ved indførelse af afgrødevanding i det gamle Mesopotamien, regionen langs flodsystemet Tigris-Eufrat, der dækker dele af nutidens Irak, Iran, Kuwait, Syrien og Tyrkiet.

Opdagelsen kan være blandt det ældste bevis på, at menneskeskabt teknologi utilsigtet forårsager sygdomsudbrud, ifølge Piers Mitchell i Cambridge, en af ​​avisens forfattere.

”Den person, der fik parasitten, kunne have gjort det ved hjælp af kunstvandingssystemer, der begyndte at blive indført i Mesopotamien for omkring 7.500 år siden. Parasitten tilbringer en del af sin livscyklus i snegle, der lever i varmt ferskvand, før de lader sneglen grave sig gennem huden på mennesker, der vader eller svømmer i vandet. Disse vandingssystemer distribuerede vand til afgrøder og kan have udløst begyndelsen på den enorme sygdomsbyrde, som schistosomiasis har forårsaget i løbet af de sidste 6000 år, ”sagde Mitchell.

"Dette er en vigtig opdagelse, ikke kun for medicinhistorien, men for den måde, den minder os om, hvor fuldstændig menneskelig kultur er sammenflettet med dens miljømæssige kontekst," sagde Gil Stein, direktør for Oriental Institute og en af ​​avisens medarbejdere. forfattere. ”Opfindelsen af ​​kunstvanding var et stort teknologisk gennembrud, og alligevel havde det som enhver teknologi utilsigtede konsekvenser og bivirkninger. Faktisk var civilisationens udvikling i høj grad en afvejning: mere mad og en mere pålidelig fødevareforsyning, kom på bekostning af mere sygdom. ”

Fundet ved Tell Zeidan i Syrien blev foretaget af et internationalt team af arkæologer og biologiske antropologer, der arbejder ved Cambridge, Cyperninstituttet og Oriental Institute. Det viser, at parasitten, der inficerede mennesker der mindst tusind år tidligere, end der er fundet i Egypten. Det ældste schistosomiasis -æg, der tidligere blev fundet, var i egyptiske mumier fra 5.200 år siden.

Ægget blev fundet i bækkenets område ved begravelsen, hvor tarmene og blæren ville have været i løbet af livet. Kontroljordprøver fra hovedets og fodområderne i graven indeholdt ingen parasitære æg, hvilket tyder på, at gravstedet ikke for nylig var forurenet med parasitten.

"Schistosomiasis er blevet gradvist mere almindelig med tiden, så det medfører en enorm byrde over hele verden i dag med over 200 millioner mennesker inficeret. Det forårsager anæmi, hvilket reducerer fysisk produktivitet betydeligt hos inficerede mennesker og kan også forårsage blærekræft. Vi ville forvente, at disse konsekvenser hos gamle mennesker ville have haft en betydelig indvirkning på de tidlige civilisationer i regionen, ”sagde Mitchell.


Forskere fra Oriental Institute opdager ældste beviser for schistosomiasis

"Forskere finder 6.200 år gammelt parasitæg" var overskriften til en nyhedsartikel fra Associated Press for nylig, der beskrev Oriental Institute Director Gil Steins arbejde i Tell Zeidan i Syrien. Dr. Stein var medforfatter til et papir om "Prehistoric schistosomiasis parasite found in the Middle East", der blev offentliggjort online i tidsskriftet Lancet Infectious Diseases. Artiklen diskuterer tilstedeværelsen af ​​et parasitisk fladeæg fra prøver taget nær bækkenet af menneskelige skeletrester. Historien blev også hentet af Washington Post, Science Magazine, Science Daily, Reuters, Medical Xpress, The Conversation, Business Insider og University of Chicago News. Artikler om udgravningerne ved Tell Zeidan dukkede op i Oriental Institute News & amp Notes 203 (efterår 2009) samt Oriental Institute Institute Årsrapport 2010-2011 og 2009-2010.


6200-årigt parasitæg kan være første bevis på, at tidlig menneskelig teknologi spredte sygdom-Historie

For 6000 år siden var landmændene virkelig økologiske - og de sygdomme, der kan medføre, var endnu mere udbredte dengang. Men forhistoriske mennesker kan fritages for enhver skyld, de havde ingen måde at vide, at landbrugsvandingssystemer kunne øge deres sygdomsbyrde.

Forskere fandt for nylig, hvad der muligvis er det ældste bevis på, at menneskeskabt teknologi utilsigtet forårsager sygdomsudbrud takket være opdagelsen af ​​et schistosomiasis parasitæg i en 6200 år gammel grav i en forhistorisk by ved Eufratfloden i Syrien.

Opdagelsen ved Tell Zeidan i Syrien viser, at parasitten inficerede mennesker der mindst tusind år tidligere end der er fundet i Egypten. Det ældste schistosomiasis -æg, der tidligere blev fundet, var i egyptiske mumier fra 5200 år siden. Ægget blev fundet i bækkenområdet ved begravelsen, hvor tarmene og blæren ville have været i løbet af livet. Kontroljordprøver fra hovedets og fodområderne i graven indeholdt ingen parasitære æg, hvilket tyder på, at gravstedet ikke for nylig var forurenet med parasitten.

Udgravning af en kalkolitisk begravelse ved zeidan. Kredit: Gil Stein, Oriental Institute, University of Chicago

Schistosomiasis er en sygdom forårsaget af flere arter af fladormsparasitter, der lever i blærens og tarmens blodkar. Infektion kan resultere i anæmi, nyresvigt og blærekræft. Denne forskning viser, at den kan have været spredt ved indførelse af afgrødevanding i det gamle Mesopotamien, regionen langs flodsystemet Tigris-Eufrat, der dækker dele af nutidens Irak, Iran, Kuwait, Syrien og Tyrkiet.

”Den person, der fik parasitten, kunne have gjort det ved brug af kunstvandingssystemer, der begyndte at blive indført i Mesopotamien for omkring 7500 år siden. Parasitten tilbringer en del af sin livscyklus i snegle, der lever i varmt ferskvand, før de lader sneglen grave sig gennem huden på mennesker, der vader eller svømmer i vandet, ”siger medforfatter Dr. Piers Mitchell fra Division of Biological Anthropology ved University of Cambridge. ”Disse kunstvandingssystemer fordelte vand til afgrøder og kan have udløst begyndelsen på den enorme sygdomsbyrde, som schistosomiasis har forårsaget i løbet af de sidste 6000 år.

"Schistosomiasis er blevet gradvist mere almindelig med tiden, så det medfører en enorm byrde over hele verden i dag med over 200 millioner mennesker inficeret. Det forårsager anæmi, som reducerer fysisk produktivitet betydeligt hos inficerede mennesker og kan også forårsage blærekræft. Vi ville forvente, at disse konsekvenser hos gamle mennesker ville have haft en betydelig indvirkning på de tidlige civilisationer i regionen. ”

Schistosome æg genoprettede fra bækkenesedimentet af et menneskeligt individ dateret for mellem 6.500 og 6000 år siden. Kredit: Piers Mitchell

Citat: Evilena Anastasiou, Kirsi O Lorentz, Gil J Stein, Piers D Mitchell, 'Prehistoric schistosomiasis parasite found in the Middle East', The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 14, Issue 7, Pages 553 - 554, July 2014 doi: 10.1016/ S1473-3099 (14) 70794-7. Kilde: Cambridge University


10 ældste kendte sygdomme

I studiet af gamle sygdomme taler intet som de døde.

"Knogleabnormiteter er en stærk kilde til identifikation," sagde Dr. Anne Grauer, antropolog ved Loyola University Chicago og formand for Paleopathology Association, under et personligt interview. Så det er relativt let at date tuberkulose på grund af de læsioner, det efterlader på knogler. Lungebetændelse kan være ældre end TB, men lungevæv holder ikke så godt efter at være begravet.

"En anden kilde til datingsygdomme er genomiske data," sagde Dr. Charlotte Roberts, arkæolog ved University of Durham og forfatter til bogen "The Archaeology of Disease." Og selv uden beviser for en krop tyder gener i eksisterende prøver af TB og spedalskhedsbakterier på forhistorisk oprindelse.

Men det vanskeligste trick til at definere de ældste kendte sygdomme kan være i, hvordan du definerer ordet & quot sygdom. Så nix tandfald, psoriasis, gigt, fedme, rakitis, epilepsi, gigt og andre menneskelige vanskeligheder, der måske bedst klassificeres som & quotforhold. & Quot

Særligt fraværende på denne liste er nogle af historiens største dræbere, herunder influenza, mæslinger og den sorte pest. Dette skyldes, at disse sygdomme kræver et niveau af befolkningstæthed, der ikke udviklede sig, før mennesker begyndte at bo i byer. Influenza, mæslinger og plagen er sociale. Malaria er ikke.

Vi har listet 10 af de ældste kendte sygdomme, der er angivet i ingen særlig rækkefølge. På den næste side kommer vi i gang med en tilstand, der trives tæt på.

Omkring 400 f.v.t. katalogiserede den athenske læge Hippokrates sygdomme i hans verden. Kolera var på listen. Men mens Hippokrates giver det første bevis på kolera ud over rimelig tvivl, opstod sygdommen sandsynligvis langs Ganges -floden, mens Athen stadig var et meget ungt sted.

Kolera lever i mange af verdens vandkilder, men det er farligst, når det har et miljø, hvor der er mange mennesker, blandt hvilke det kan sprede sig. Ganges -floden er tilfældigvis et af de ældste steder med menneskelig befolkningstæthed, og det var derfor længe, ​​længe siden, at opstrømsbrugere samlede de nødvendige tal for at forurene vandet for dem nedstrøms. Med andre ord, efterhånden som flere mennesker bliver smittet med kolera, forurener de vandforsyningen med flere bakterier, hvilket igen inficerer flere mennesker.

Interessant nok kan det samme problem have været en vigtig faktor i tabet af tropper i Hannibals march over Alperne. Med et tog på 50.000 soldater ville tropperne og dyrene foran have stødt på uberørte bjergstrømme, men bagmændene ville have været tvunget til at håndtere rodet og potentielt kolera-rigt vand [kilde: Hunt].

Fra 430 til 426 f.v.t. fejede en stor pest gennem bystaten Athen. Historikeren Thucydides beskriver symptomerne på denne måde:

Sygdommen kunne ikke være kommet på et dårligere tidspunkt. Pesten bidrog til Athens eventuelle tab for Sparta i den peloponnesiske krig og en lang pause for demokrati i verdenshistorien.

Hvad var årsagen til denne pest?

Bibelen, Mosebog 13: 2 lyder, & quot Aaron præsten eller til en af ​​hans sønner præsterne. & Quot

Men dette er ikke den første konkrete omtale af sygdommen. Den ære går til den egyptiske & quotEbers Papyrus, & quot skrevet i 1550 f.v.t., som anbefaler, "Hvis du undersøger en stor tumor af Khonsu i nogen del af en mand, og det er forfærdeligt, og det har lavet mange hævelser. Noget er dukket op i det som det, hvor der er luft. Så skal du sige om det: Det er en hævelse af Khonsu. Du bør ikke gøre noget imod det & quot [kilde: Nunn].

Mens tyfus og kolera er ret ligetil i deres aggressive spredning gennem vandkilder, er spedalskhed afhængig af en anden spredningsstrategi - hviletid. Folk kan bære de bakterier, der forårsager spedalskhed i 20 år eller mere, før de viser symptomer, og kan i løbet af denne tid sprede sygdommen.

En historisk udfordring ved behandling af spedalskhed var diagnose. I sine tidlige stadier af udtryk ligner spedalskhed meget syfilis og lidt som psoriasis. Fejldiagnose landede mange psoriasisramte i spedalske kolonier, hvor mange til sidst, ironisk nok, trak sig sammen og døde af spedalskhed på grund af øget eksponering.

Generelt er målet med mumificering at bevare blødt væv. Så som du ville forvente, giver Egypten en skattekiste af information om gamle bløddelssygdomme.

En af de første forskere, der vendte et paleopatologisk øje til egyptiske mumier, var Sir Marc Armand Ruffer, der i sin bog fra 1921 & quotStudies of the Palaeopathology of Egypt & quot beskrev tre mumier med & quotdome formede vesikler & quot ekstremt magen til dem, der forventes af kopper [kilde: Ruffer]. Den ældste af disse mumier blev dateret 1580 f.v.t., og den seneste var mumien til Ramses V, der døde i 1157 f.v.t.

Efter sin egen inspektion af mumien skrev Donald R. Hopkins, der deltog i Verdenssundhedsorganisationens udryddelsesprogram for kopper, om Ramses V, & quot Inspektion af mumien afslørede et udslæt af forhøjede 'pustler', hver cirka 2 til 4 millimeter i diameter , der var mest tydelig på det nedre ansigt, nakke og skuldre, men var også synligt på armene. & quot [kilde: Hopkins]

Er dette afgørende? Nej, ikke nødvendigvis, og til dato har der ikke været nogen moderne analyse af Ramses V, der definitivt kunne afgøre, om hans tilstand faktisk var kopper. Men de omstændighedsmæssige beviser virker stærke.

Kopper er en af ​​historiens største mordere, der er ansvarlig for 300 til 500 millioner dødsfald i det 20. århundrede [kilde: Saint Louis University].

Rabies er genial: Det inficerer ikke kun en vært, men det kaprer også værtens hjerne på en måde, der får værten til at ville bide ting. Sådan får rabies en billet at ride. Og det har gjort det siden mindst 2300 f.v.t., da det blev beskrevet i Eshuma -koden i Babylon [kilde: Rupprecht et al.].

Den første person, der vides at have overlevet rabies uden en vaccination, er Jeanna Giese, en teenager i Wisconsin, der blev bidt i 2004 af en rabiat flagermus, mens han var i kirken. New York Times rapporterer, at Jeanna gik en måned mellem bid og behandling og blev indlagt på hospitalet med symptomer på fuldblæst rabies [kilde: Rosenthal]. Læger på Children's Hospital i Wisconsin indledte en cocktail af koma-inducerende og antivirale lægemidler, selvom Gieses familie krediterer bøn med at redde pigens liv.

Romerne tilbød den første kur mod malaria: en amulet båret om halsen, indskrevet med den kraftige besværgelse & quotabracadabra & quot [kilde: Shah]. I årenes løb har vi forsøgt forskellige andre helbredelsesmetoder: tilføjelse af olie til stillestående vandpytter til at kvæle myggelarver, bruge pesticider, vacciner og net og endda udnytte højteknologiske løsninger såsom en laser, der skyder myg i luften. Men sygdommen fortsætter med at inficere 300 millioner mennesker hvert år og dræber 1 million af dem [kilde: Shah].

Wall Street Journal rapporterer, at malaria er ansvarlig for halvdelen af ​​alle menneskelige dødsfald siden stenalderen [kilde: Shah].

Indrømmet, at statistikken forlænger sygdommens oprindelse tilbage i tiden forbi sin første bestemte omtale, som var i den kinesiske & quotNei Ching& quot ("The Canon of Medicine", omkring år 2700 f.v.t. [kilde: CDC].

Folk indånder mere end 11.000 liter luft hver dag [kilde: Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality]. Og som du ville forvente, er lungerne et yndet hjemsted for bakterier, vira, svampe og endda parasitter. Og når noget fremmed koloniserer lungerne, er det mest almindelige resultat væske. Paraplyudtrykket, vi bruger til at beskrive væske i lungerne, er lungebetændelse.

Hippokrates skrev, at væske i lungerne skulle kaldes lungebetændelse, hvis & quot feberen er akut, og hvis der er smerter på hver side eller i begge, og hvis udløb er, hvis hosten er til stede, og sputaen, der er ekspektoreret, er af blond eller livlig farve & quot [kilde: Hippokrates]. Men han kalder det også tydeligt en "sygdom hos de gamle."

Hvor præcist finder lungebetændelse sted på denne liste over ældste kendte sygdomme? Fordi det er en bløddelssygdom, er den arkæologiske rekord ikke stærk. Men det er sandsynligt, at forskellige former for lungebetændelse har eksisteret lige så længe som vores lunger.

I 2008 udgravede et team af forskere fra University College London den nedsænkede gamle by Alit-Yam, ud for Israels kyst. Der fandt de de begravede rester af en mor og hendes barn. Begge skeletter viste knogleskader, der er karakteristiske for tuberkulose [kilde: Lloyd]. DNA -test bekræftede det: Tuberkulose er mindst 9.000 år gammel.

Interessant nok gav denne grav også beviser til en igangværende debat om kylling eller æg, om vi fik TB fra køer, eller om de fik det fra os. I Alit-Yam viste menneskeskeletter tegn på tuberkulose, mens DNA fra dyreskeletter ikke [kilde: Hershkovitz et al.]. Så det ser ud til, at køer ikke er de dræbere, vi engang troede.

Andre historiske spekulationer har vist sig lige så falske: Hverken fossil- eller DNA -registreringer understøtter årsagen til TB som natlig fest med feer og den deraf følgende mangel på hvile, og sygdommen er heller ikke resultatet af hekse, der forvandler offeret til en hest og derefter ride på offer for natlige møder, som man engang troede [kilde: Briggs].

Mens Alit-Yam-fundet er det ældste bekræftede tilfælde af TB, er der fundet karakteristiske læsioner på knogler fundet i Tyrkiet, dateret for omkring 500.000 år siden [kilde: Lloyd].

Trachoma er en kronisk infektion i det øvre øjenlåg, der i sidste ende resulterer i, at øjenlåget trænger sammen og drejer øjenvipperne ind mod hornhinden. Over tid får gnidningen af ​​det indsnævrede øjenlåg og især øjenvipper patienten til at blive blind. Dette er hvad der skete med Aetius, Paulus Aeginetus, Alexander, Trailaus, Horace og Cicero. Og trachoma er beskrevet i Hippokrates og i den egyptiske Ebers papyrus [kilder: Siniscal og Nunn].

Men forskere fremlægger en overbevisende sag om tidligere trachom fundet i et hjørne af verden, der ikke er forbundet med tidlige sygdomme: Australien. Aboriginale skeletter fra 8000 f.v.t. vise en almindelig kranielæsion omkring øjnene [kilde: Webb]. Forskere fastslog, at disse læsioner skyldtes knogleinfektion, der var kommet fra infektion med blødt væv. Selvom der er et par øjensygdomme, der kunne passe til denne regning, blev skeletterne fundet i den australske region, hvor trachom er mest almindelig i dag.

1: Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

Mitokondrier er små organeller, der findes i næsten alle celler i menneskekroppen. Og de udfører en funktion, der er afgørende for menneskelivet, og omdanner glukose fra mad til energi kaldet adenosintrifosfat eller ATP, som celler kan bruge.

Men mitokondrier bærer deres eget genetiske materiale - adskilt fra menneskeligt DNA - og disse gener ligner meget bakterier. Med andre ord er det meget sandsynligt, at de mitokondrier, som vi er afhængige af for overlevelse, er produkter af en gammel infektion [kilde: Andersson et al.].

Uanset infektionen går den forud for dyrelivet, endsige mennesker. Så det nytter ikke at undersøge fossilrekorden. I stedet sammenlignede forskere mitokondriernes gener med eksisterende bakteriers. Det nærmeste match var bakterier af orden Rickettsiales, hvoraf mange forårsager sygdomme - herunder plettet feber fra Rocky Mountain [kilder: Eremeeva og Dasch, Andersson et al.].

Men husk, vi taler om en sygdom, der eksisterede før dyrelivet. Så den ældste sygdom er ikke rigtig Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever selv, men nogle navngivne proto-sygdomme med genetisk lighed.

For længe, ​​længe siden invaderede bakterier en celle. Og på grund af denne infektion har vi livet, som vi kender det.


Den første malaria-bevis myg

I årevis har forskere verden over forsøgt at skabe genetisk ændrede myg, der ikke kan inficere mennesker med malaria. Disse bestræbelser manglede, fordi myggene stadig var i stand til at overføre det sygdomsfremkaldende patogen, kun i lavere antal.

Nu er det for første gang lykkedes entomologer fra University of Arizona at genetisk ændre myg på en måde, der gør dem fuldstændig immune over for parasitten, en encellet organisme kaldet Plasmodium. En dag håber forskere at erstatte vilde myg med lab-avlede
populationer ude af stand til at fungere som vektorer, dvs. overføre den malariafremkaldende parasit.

"Hvis du effektivt vil stoppe spredningen af ​​malariaparasitten, har du brug for myg, der ikke er mindre end 100 procent resistente over for den. Hvis en enkelt parasit glider igennem og inficerer et menneske, er hele tilgangen dømt til at mislykkes," sagde Michael Riehle, der ledede forskningsindsatsen, hvis resultater blev offentliggjort 15. juli i tidsskriftet Public Library of Science Pathogener.

Riehle er professor i entomologi i UA's College of Agriculture og biovidenskab og er medlem af BIO5 Institut.

Riehles team brugte molekylærbiologiske teknikker til at designe et stykke genetisk information, der er i stand til at indsætte sig selv i en mygs genom. Denne konstruktion blev derefter injiceret i myggens æg. Den nye generation bærer den ændrede genetiske information og videregiver den til kommende generationer.

Til deres eksperimenter brugte forskerne Anopheles stephensi, en mygart, der er en vigtig malariavektor i hele det indiske subkontinent.

Forskerne målrettede en af ​​de mange biokemiske veje inde i mygens celler. Specifikt konstruerede de et stykke genetisk kode, der fungerede som en molekylær switch i den komplekse kontrol af metaboliske funktioner inde i cellen. Den genetiske konstruktion fungerer som en switch, der altid er sat til "on", hvilket fører til permanent aktivitet af et signalenzym kaldet Akt. Akt fungerer som et messengermolekyle i flere metaboliske funktioner, herunder udvikling af larver, immunrespons og levetid.

Da Riehle og hans kolleger studerede de genetisk modificerede myg efter at have fodret dem med malaria-inficeret blod, bemærkede de, at Plasmodium-parasitterne ikke inficerede et enkelt forsøgsdyr.

"Vi var overraskede over, hvor godt dette fungerer," sagde Riehle. "Vi håbede bare på at se en vis effekt på myggenes væksthastighed, levetid eller deres modtagelighed over for parasitten, men det var dejligt at se, at vores konstruktion blokerede infektionsprocessen fuldstændigt."

Af de anslåede 250 millioner mennesker, der hvert år får malaria, overlever 1 million - for det meste børn - ikke. Halvfems procent af antallet af dødsfald, som Riehle formoder at være underrapporteret, forekommer i Afrika syd for Sahara.

Hver ny malaria -sag starter med et bid fra en vektor - en myg, der tilhører slægten Anopheles. Omkring 25 arter af Anopheles er signifikante vektorer af sygdommen.

Kun kvindelige Anopheles -myg lever af blod, som de har brug for for at producere æg. Når de bider et inficeret menneske eller dyr, indtager de malariaparasitten.

Når Plasmodium -cellerne befinder sig i insektets midttarm, springer de i aktion. De forlader insektets fordøjelseskanal ved at klemme sig gennem midterens foring. Langt de fleste Plasmodium -celler overlever ikke denne rejse og elimineres af myggens immunceller. En lille brøkdel af parasitceller, normalt ikke mere end en håndfuld, klarer det og sætter sig fast på ydersiden af ​​midtarmvæggen, hvor de udvikler sig til grublende celler kaldet oocyster.

Inden for 10-12 dage spirer tusinder af nye Plasmodium-celler, såkaldte sporozoitter, inde i oocysten. Efter udklækning fra oocysten kommer sporozoitterne ind i insektets spytkirtler, hvor de ligger og venter, indtil myggen finder et offer for et blodmåltid. Når myggen bider, skylles nogle sporozoitter ind i offerets blodstrøm.

"Den gennemsnitlige myg overfører omkring 40 sporozoitter, når den bider," sagde Riehle, "men det kræver kun én at inficere et menneske og lave et nyt malariaoffer."

Flere arter af Plasmodium findes i forskellige dele af verden, som alle er mikroskopisk små encellede organismer, der lever i deres værts røde blodlegemer. Hver gang parasitterne gennemgår en omgang multiplikation, brister deres værtsceller og frigiver afkomene i blodbanen, hvilket forårsager de smertefulde anfald af feber, som malaria er kendt og frygtet for.

Malaria dræbte flere soldater i borgerkrigen end kampene, ifølge Riehle. Faktisk var malaria udbredt i de fleste dele af USA indtil slutningen af ​​1940'erne og begyndelsen af ​​1950, hvor DDT -sprøjtekampagner slettede vektorerne af kortet. I dag forekommer et nyt tilfælde af malaria kun i sjældne tilfælde i USA.

Sygdommens sværhedsgrad afhænger i høj grad af arten af ​​Plasmodium -parasitten, som patienten tilfældigvis trækker sig sammen.

"Kun to arter af Plasmodium forårsager sygdommens frygtede tilbagefald," sagde Riehle. "One of them, Plasmodium vivax, can lie dormant in the liver for 10 to 15 years, but now drugs have become available that target the parasites in the liver as well as those in the blood cells."

That said, there are no effective or approved malaria vaccines. A few vaccine candidates have gone to clinical trials but they were shown to either be ineffective or provide only short-term protection. If an effective vaccine were to be developed, distribution would be a major problem, Riehle said.

Researchers and health officials put higher hopes into eradication programs, which aim at the disease-transmitting mosquitoes rather than the pathogens that cause it.

"The question is 'What can we do to turn a good vector into a bad vector?'" Riehle said.

"The eradication scenario requires three things: A gene that disrupts the development of the parasite inside the mosquito, a genetic technique to bring that gene into the mosquito genome and a mechanism that gives the modified mosquito an edge over the natural populations so they can displace them over time."

"The third requirement is going to be the most difficult of the three to realize," he added, which is why his team decided to tackle the other two first.

"It was known that the Akt enzyme is involved in the mosquito's growth rate and immune response, among other things," Riehle said. "So we went ahead with this genetic construct to see if we can ramp up Akt function and help the insects' immune system fight off the malaria parasite."

The second rationale behind this approach was to use Akt signaling to stunt the mosquitoes' growth and cut down on its lifespan.

"In the wild, a mosquito lives for an average of two weeks," Riehle explained. "Only the oldest mosquitoes are able to transmit the parasite. If we can reduce the lifespan of the mosquitoes, we can reduce the number of infections."

His research team discovered that mosquitoes carrying two copies of the altered gene had lost their ability to act as malaria vectors altogether.

"In that group of mosquitoes, not a single Plasmodium oocyst managed to form."

At this point, the modified mosquitoes exist in a highly secured lab environment with no chance of escape. Once researchers find a way to replace wild mosquito populations with lab-bred ones, breakthroughs like the one achieved by Riehle's group could pave the way toward a world in which malaria is all but history.


6200-year-old parasite egg may be first proof of early human technology spreading disease - History

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Antichrist unveiled

This is evidence that there was indeed trade between the east in Mesopotamia, including the Caucasus Mountains northward, and the west in Egypt with the Levant between them. Furthermore, they say they must rethink their past theories and that there was a much more extensive trade distance than they thought. This show a connection.

Burial reveals complex origins of metallurgy

Article created on Tuesday, May 27, 2014

The origin of metallurgy in the ancient Near East is well attested in the southern Levant, with rich assemblages of copper artefacts from the Nahal Mishmar cave and the unique gold rings of the Nahal Qanah cave, confirming this as the main centre during the second half of the 5th millennium CalBC. However many important questions about Chalcolithic metallurgy in the southern Levant remain unanswered, such as, where do the materials used in the processes come from, where were the final goods produced, and what were the dynamics of production? New questions continue to arise as recent discoveries force previous interpretations to be reconsidered.

New evidence has come to light in the form of a copper awl from a Middle Chalcolithic burial at Tel Tsaf in the Jordan Valley, Israel, suggesting that cast metal technology was introduced to the region as early as the late 6th millennium CalBC.

Middle Chalcolithic phase

Tel Tsaf is an archaeological site south-east of Beit She’an, and in 2004–2007 a large excavation project was conducted by Yosef Garfinkel of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Tel Tsaf is dated to ca. 5100–4600 CalBC, sometimes called the Middle Chalcolithic, a little-known period in the archaeology of the Levant, post-dating the Wadi Rabah phase and pre-dating the Ghassulian Chalcolithic phase.

The complex mud-brick architectural settings include courtyard buildings combining rectilinear, rounded rooms and grain silos, as well as a large number of cooking facilities. Four burials were uncovered, two of which were found inside grain silos. The silos uncovered in courtyard structures reached a storage capacity estimated at 15–30 tons of grain, far beyond the yearly needs of a family a clear indication of the accumulation of surpluses on a scale unprecedented in the ancient Near East.

Tel Tsaf contained a rich assemblage of over 2,500 beads made of ostrich egg-shell, obsidian items originating in Anatolia or Armenia, four Ubaid pottery shards imported from either north Syria or Mesopotamia and a Nilotic shell from Egypt. These finds exhibit connections of unexpected distance and diversity.

A small find with greater implications A paper presented in the Open Access journal PLOSone examines the chemical composition of the tiny copper awl and reviews its context for the first time.

The object was found in the grave of an articulated skeleton of an adult female who was approximately 40 years old. It is described as an elongated pin made of cast copper, with a rounded cross-section. It is 41 mm long with a maximum diameter (near the base and at the middle of its length) of 5 mm. The diameter near its tip is 1 mm. The colour of its exterior is green due to oxidization and corrosion, while the core is reddish. The narrower tip bears signs of rotational movement and remains of a wooden handle were noted on the base at the opposite end, suggesting its use as an awl. Unfortunately this artefact was completely corroded, so it was impossible to examine the structure of the metal and production technique, however, the composition was possible using Niton ED-XRF analysis.

High status trading family

The results indicate that it was made from a natural tin-copper and brought from a distant source, probably the Caucasus, and transported to the Jordan Valley via long-distance exchange networks, which also brought obsidian, groundstone items and other goods from Armenia, Anatolia and Syria through the Levantine Corridor. This infers a high status on the occupants of Courtyard Building I a family or selected group within the community that quite possibly controlled local cultivation and storage of grain as well as long-distance trade.

Jun 23, 2014 #42 2014-06-23T20:11

Oldest ever schistosomiasis egg found may be first proof of early human technology exacerbating disease burden

Date: June 19, 2014
Source: The Lancet
Resumé:

The discovery of a schistosomiasis parasite egg in a 6200-year-old grave at a prehistoric town by the Euphrates river in Syria may be the first evidence that agricultural irrigation systems in the Middle East contributed to disease burden, according to new research. Schistosomiasis is a disease caused by several species of flatworm parasites that live in the blood vessels of the bladder and intestines.


Canyon of Euphrates River (stock image). The discovery of a schistosomiasis parasite egg in a 6200-year-old grave at a prehistoric town by the Euphrates river in Syria may be the first evidence that agricultural irrigation systems in the Middle East contributed to disease burden. Credit: © silver-john / Fotolia

The discovery of a schistosomiasis parasite egg in a 6200-year-old grave at a prehistoric town by the Euphrates river in Syria may be the first evidence that agricultural irrigation systems in the Middle East contributed to disease burden, according to new Correspondence published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases.

Schistosomiasis is a disease caused by several species of flatworm parasites that live in the blood vessels of the bladder and intestines. Infection can result in anemia, kidney failure, and bladder cancer. This research shows it may have been spread by the introduction of crop irrigation in ancient Mesopotamia, the region along the Tigris-Euphrates river system that covers parts of modern-day Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, Syria, and Turkey.

According to one of the authors Dr Piers Mitchell, at the University of Cambridge, UK, the discovery might be among the oldest evidence of human-made technology inadvertently causing disease outbreaks. "The individual who contracted the parasite might have done so through the use of irrigation systems that were starting to be introduced in Mesopotamia around 7500 years ago. The parasite spends part of its life cycle in snails that live in warm fresh water, before leaving the snail to burrow through the skin of people wading or swimming in the water.

These irrigation systems distributed water to crops and may have triggered the beginning of the enormous disease burden that schistosomiasis has caused over the past 6000 years."

The discovery at Tell Zeidan in Syria was made by an international team of archaeologists and biological anthropologists working at Cambridge (UK), The Cyprus Institute (Cyprus), and the University of Chicago's Oriental Institute (USA). It shows that the parasite infected humans there at least a thousand years earlier than has been found in Egypt. The oldest Schistosomiasis egg found previously was in Egyptian mummies from 5200 years ago.

The egg was found in the pelvic area of the burial where the intestines and bladder would have been during life. Control soil samples from the head and foot areas of the grave contained no parasitic eggs, suggesting that the gravesite was not contaminated with the parasite more recently.

"Schistosomiasis has become progressively more common over time so that it causes a huge burden across the world today, with over 200 million people infected. It causes anemia which significantly decreases physical productivity in infected people, and may also cause bladder cancer. We would expect these consequences in ancient peoples to have had a significant impact upon early civilizations in the region," says Dr Mitchell.

Jul 14, 2014 #43 2014-07-14T21:17

Saharan remains may be evidence of first race war, 13,000 years ago

The skeletons – from the east bank of the Nile in northern Sudan – are from victims of the world’s oldest known relatively large-scale human armed conflict

Monday 14 July 2014 Scientists are investigating what may be the oldest identified race war 13,000 years after it raged on the fringes of the Sahara.

French scientists working in collaboration with the British Museum have been examining dozens of skeletons, a majority of whom appear to have been killed by archers using flint-tipped arrows.

The bones – from Jebel Sahaba on the east bank of the Nile in northern Sudan – are from victims of the world’s oldest known relatively large-scale human armed conflict. Over the past two years anthropologists from Bordeaux University have discovered literally dozens of previously undetected arrow impact marks and flint arrow head fragments on and around the bones of the victims.

This is in addition to many arrow heads and impact marks already found embedded in some of the bones during an earlier examination of the skeletons back in the 1960s. The remains – the contents of an entire early cemetery – were found in 1964 by the prominent American archaeologist, Fred Wendorf, but, until the current investigations, had never been examined using more modern, 21 century, technology.

Some of the skeletal material has just gone on permanent display as part of the British Museum’s new Early Egypt gallery which opens officially today. The bones – from Jebel Sahaba on the east bank of the River Nile in northern Sudan – are from victims of the world’s oldest known relatively large-scale human armed conflict.

Now British Museum scientists are planning to learn more about the victims themselves – everything from gender to disease and from diet to age at death. The discovery of dozens of previously undetected arrow impact marks and flint arrow fragments suggests that the majority of the individuals – men, women and children – in the Jebel Sahaba cemetery were killed by enemy archers, and then buried by their own people. What’s more, the new research demonstrates that the attacks – in effect a prolonged low-level war – took place over many months or years.

Parallel research over recent years has also been shedding new light as to who, in ethnic and racial terms, these victims were.

Work carried out at Liverpool John Moores University, the University of Alaska and New Orleans’ Tulane University indicates that they were part of the general sub-Saharan originating population – the ancestors of modern Black Africans.

The identity of their killers is however less easy to determine. But it is conceivable that they were people from a totally different racial and ethnic group – part of a North African/Levantine/European people who lived around much of the Mediterranean Basin.

The two groups – although both part of our species, Homo sapiens – would have looked quite different from each other and were also almost certainly different culturally and linguistically. The sub-Saharan originating group had long limbs, relatively short torsos and projecting upper and lower jaws along with rounded foreheads and broad noses, while the North African/Levantine/European originating group had shorter limbs, longer torsos and flatter faces. Both groups were very muscular and strongly built. Certainly the northern Sudan area was a major ethnic interface between these two different groups at around this period. Indeed the remains of the North African/Levantine/European originating population group has even been found 200 miles south of Jebel Sahaba, thus suggesting that the arrow victims were slaughtered in an area where both populations operated.

What’s more, the period in which they perished so violently was one of huge competition for resources – for they appear to have been killed during a severe climatic downturn in which many water sources dried up, especially in summer time.

The climatic downturn – known as the Younger Dryas period – had been preceded by much lusher, wetter and warmer conditions which had allowed populations to expand. But when climatic conditions temporarily worsened during the Younger Dryas, water holes dried up, vegetation wilted and animals died or moved to the only major year-round source of water still available – the Nile.

Humans of all ethnic groups in the area were forced to follow suit – and migrated to the banks (especially the eastern bank) of the great river. Competing for finite resources, human groups would have inevitably clashed – and the current investigation is demonstrating the apparent scale of this earliest known substantial human conflict.

The skeletons were originally found during UNESCO-funded excavations carried out to investigate archaeological sites that were about to be inundated by the Aswan High Dam. All the Jebel Sahaba material was taken by the excavator Fred Wendorf to his laboratory in Texas, and some 30 years later was transferred to the care of the British Museum which is now working with other scientists to carry out a major new analysis of them.

“The skeletal material is of great importance – not only because of the evidence for conflict, but also because the Jebel Sahaba cemetery is the oldest discovered in the Nile Valley so far,” said Dr. Daniel Antoine, a curator in the British Museum’s Ancient Egypt and Sudan Department.

Of the 59 Jebel Sahaba victims, skeletal material from two has been included in the new Early Egypt gallery. The display includes flint arrowhead fragments and a healed forearm fracture, almost certainly sustained by a victim seeking to defend himself by raising his arm during an episode of conflict.


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Clusters of hunter-gatherers spent much of the late Stone Age working out the basics of farming on the fertile lands of Turkey before taking this knowledge to Europe. In an analysis of ancient genomes published in Current Biology, researchers report that two waves of early European settlers belonged to the same gene pool as farmers in Turkey -- genealogy that can be traced back to some of the first people to cultivate crops outside of Mesopotamia. (2016-08-04)

A federal origin of Stone Age farming
The transition from hunter-gatherer to sedentary farming 10,000 years ago occurred in multiple neighboring but genetically distinct populations according to research by an international team including UCL. (2016-07-14)

Iraqi Kurdistan site reveals evolution towards the first cities of Mesopotamia
A Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB) campaign at the site of Gird Lashkir, in Iraq, reveals the evolution from the first farming societies to the consolidation of the first cities of Mesopotamia. The director of the research, UAB professor Miquel Molist, qualifies the area as an archaeological site of exceptional potential, given that there is no other similar site with so many occupancies in the area. (2016-06-21)

The Lancet Infectious Diseases: Oldest ever schistosomiasis egg found may be first proof of early human technology exacerbating disease burden
The discovery of a schistosomiasis parasite egg in a 6200-year-old grave at a prehistoric town by the Euphrates river in Syria may be the first evidence that agricultural irrigation systems in the Middle East contributed to disease burden, according to new Correspondence published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases. (2014-06-19)

Oldest use of flowers in grave lining
Radiocarbon dating at the Weizmann Institute determines the age of flowery graves. A new accelerator will help solve long-standing archaeological mysteries. (2013-07-10)

Research finds crisis in Syria has Mesopotamian precedent
Research carried out at the University of Sheffield has revealed intriguing parallels between modern day and Bronze-Age Syria as the Mesopotamian region underwent urban decline, government collapse, and drought. (2012-12-18)

Most of the harmful mutations in people arose in the past 5,000 to 10,000 years
A study of the age of more than 1 million single-letter variations in the human DNA code reveals that most of these mutations are of recent origin, evolutionarily speaking. They arose as a result of explosive population growth, which provides more chances for new mutations to appear in offspring. Many of these mutations are harmful, some have no effect, and others are beneficial now or may provide an adaptive advantage for future generations. (2012-11-28)

Man and nature 3200 BC to the Middle Ages
New postgraduate research group to study early concepts of Man and Nature from 3200 BC to the Middle Ages. (2012-11-27)

Tomb of Maya queen K'abel discovered in Guatemala
Archaeologists in Guatemala have discovered the tomb of Lady K'abel, a seventh-century Maya Holy Snake Lord considered one of the great queens of Classic Maya civilization. The tomb was discovered during excavations of the royal Maya city of El Perú-Waka' in northwestern Petén, Guatemala, by a team of archaeologists led by Washington University in St. Louis' David Freidel, co-director of the expedition. (2012-10-03)

Climate change led to collapse of ancient Indus civilization, study finds
A new study combining the latest archaeological evidence with state-of-the-art geoscience technologies provides evidence that climate change was a key ingredient in the collapse of the great Indus or Harappan civilization almost 4000 years ago. The study also resolves a long-standing debate over the source and fate of the Sarasvati, the sacred river of Hindu mythology. (2012-05-28)

Rethinking the social structure of ancient Eurasian nomads: Current Anthropology research
Prehistoric Eurasian nomads are commonly perceived as horse riding bandits who utilized their mobility and military skill to antagonize ancient civilizations such as the Chinese, Persians, and Greeks. Although some historical accounts may support this view, a new article by Dr. Michael Frachetti (Washington University, St. Louis) illustrates a considerably different image of prehistoric pastoralist societies and their impact on world civilizations more than 5000 years ago. (2012-02-24)

The fermented cereal beverage of the Sumerians may not have been beer
4000-year-old cuneiform writings from Mesopotamia tell us little about the brewing techniques used at the time. (2012-01-17)

What is war good for? Sparking civilization, suggest UCLA archaeology findings from Peru
Raiding, triggered by political conflict in the 5th century BC, likely shaped the development of the first settlement that would classify as a civilization in the Titicaca basin in southern Peru, a suggests a new UCLA study. (2011-07-25)

Huge ancient language dictionary finished after 90 years
An ambitious project to identify, explain and provide citations for the words written in cuneiform on clay tablets and carved in stone by Babylonians, Assyrians and others in Mesopotamia between 2500 B.C. and A.D. 100 has been completed after 90 years of labor, the University of Chicago announced June 5. (2011-06-05)

Archaeologists investigate Iraqi marshes for origins of Mesopotamian cities
Three National Science Foundation-supported researchers recently undertook the first non-Iraqi archaeological investigation of the Tigris-Euphrates delta in nearly 20 years. (2011-03-31)

Play was important -- even 4,000 years ago
Play was a central element of people's lives as far back as 4,000 years ago. This has been revealed by an archaeology thesis from the University of Gothenburg, Sweden, which investigates the social significance of the phenomenon of play and games in the Bronze Age Indus Valley in present-day Pakistan. (2011-02-07)

Secrets of an ancient Tel Aviv fortress revealed
New archeological research from the Tel Qudadi archaeological dig near Tel Aviv suggests an ancient link between the Israeli city and the Greek island of Lesbos -- a find producing new insights into alliances and trade routes in the ancient world. (2010-12-28)

Paradise lost -- and found
Researchers at Tel Aviv University have uncovered an ancient royal garden at the site of Ramat Rachel near Jerusalem, and are leading the first full-scale excavation of this type of archaeological site anywhere in the pre-Hellenistic Levant. The dig is an unparalleled look into the structure and function of ancient gardens. (2010-10-28)

Archaeologists uncover land before wheel site untouched for 6,000 years
A team of archaeologists from the University of Chicago's Oriental Institute, along with a team of Syrian colleagues, is uncovering new clues about a prehistoric society that formed the foundation of urban life in the Middle East prior to invention of the wheel. (2010-04-06)


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Kommentarer:

  1. Tyreece

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  3. Ferchar

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